Abstract

An efficient light trapping scheme is a key to enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cells by compensating for the insufficient light absorption. To handle optical components from nano-scale to micro-scale seamlessly, a multi-scale optical simulation is carefully designed in this study and is used to qualitatively analyze the light trapping performances of a micro lens array (MLA), a V-shaped configuration, and the newly proposed scheme, which is termed a double parabolic trapper (DPT) according to both daily and annual movement of the sun. DPT has the potential to enhance the PCE significantly, from 5.9% to 8.9%, for PCDTBT:PC70BM-based polymer solar cells by perfectly trapping the incident light between two parabolic PV cells.

© 2013 OSA

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  26. S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
    [CrossRef]
  32. X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, “Design and fabrication of low concentrating second generation PRIDE concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(7), 597–608 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. K. Yoshioka, K. Endoh, M. Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Design and properties of a refractive static concentrator module,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 34(1-4), 125–131 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. K. Yoshioka, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional compound elliptic lens concentrators using a yearly distributed insolation model,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 9–19 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Dal Zilio, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, M. Tormen, “Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1150–1154 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

H. H. Shen, B. Maes, “Combined plasmonic gratings in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1202–A1210 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lee, S. J. Yun, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lim, “Texturing of Ga-Doped ZnO Transparent Electrode for a-Si: H Thin Film Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid State 14(11), B124–B126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Dal Zilio, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, M. Tormen, “Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Bai, Q. Q. Gan, F. Bartoli, J. Zhang, L. K. Cai, Y. D. Huang, G. F. Song, “Design of plasmonic back structures for efficiency enhancement of thin-film amorphous Si solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3725–3727 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dewan, M. Marinkovic, R. Noriega, S. Phadke, A. Salleo, D. Knipp, “Light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with submicron surface texture,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23058–23065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Surface Relief Gratings Fabricated by Simple Soft Lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, N. K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, “Design and fabrication of low concentrating second generation PRIDE concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(7), 597–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ruske, C. Jacobs, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, W. Werner, “Large area ZnO: Al films with tailored-light scattering properties for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8695–8698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Springer, B. Rech, W. Reetz, J. Muller, M. Vanecek, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krc, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, E. Smole, M. Topic, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO: Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650–2652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional compound elliptic lens concentrators using a yearly distributed insolation model,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 9–19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Rech, H. Wagner, “Potential of amorphous silicon for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 69, 155–167 (1999).

1994 (1)

K. Yoshioka, K. Endoh, M. Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Design and properties of a refractive static concentrator module,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 34(1-4), 125–131 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abass, A.

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, V.

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B.S.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Baek, S.W.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Bai, W. L.

Bartoli, F.

Beaupre, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beneking, C.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bochem, H. P.

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650–2652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L. K.

Campbell, P.

P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choy, W. C. H.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coates, N.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dal Zilio, S.

S. Dal Zilio, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, M. Tormen, “Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewan, R.

Ding, B. F.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dittmar, G.

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong-Yu, K.

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eames, P. C.

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, “Design and fabrication of low concentrating second generation PRIDE concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(7), 597–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Endoh, K.

K. Yoshioka, K. Endoh, M. Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Design and properties of a refractive static concentrator module,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 34(1-4), 125–131 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650–2652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q. Q.

Geyer, R.

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glatthaar, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J. H.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houben, L.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

Huo, L. J.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Im, H.-G.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

S. Dal Zilio, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, M. Tormen, “Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, N. K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

Jacobs, C.

F. Ruske, C. Jacobs, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, W. Werner, “Large area ZnO: Al films with tailored-light scattering properties for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8695–8698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Jo, J.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Surface Relief Gratings Fabricated by Simple Soft Lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juhwan, K.

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Surface Relief Gratings Fabricated by Simple Soft Lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Surface Relief Gratings Fabricated by Simple Soft Lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. M. Lee, S. J. Yun, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lim, “Texturing of Ga-Doped ZnO Transparent Electrode for a-Si: H Thin Film Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid State 14(11), B124–B126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Surface Relief Gratings Fabricated by Simple Soft Lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kluth, O.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, E. Smole, M. Topic, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO: Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, D.

Ko, J.-H.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

K. Yoshioka, K. Endoh, M. Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Design and properties of a refractive static concentrator module,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 34(1-4), 125–131 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, E. Smole, M. Topic, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO: Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. S.

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lechner, P.

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, M.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

J. M. Lee, S. J. Yun, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lim, “Texturing of Ga-Doped ZnO Transparent Electrode for a-Si: H Thin Film Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid State 14(11), B124–B126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.Y.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewer, P.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. F.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J. W.

J. M. Lee, S. J. Yun, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lim, “Texturing of Ga-Doped ZnO Transparent Electrode for a-Si: H Thin Film Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid State 14(11), B124–B126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loffl, A.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maes, B.

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Shen, B. Maes, “Combined plasmonic gratings in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1202–A1210 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallick, T. K.

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, “Design and fabrication of low concentrating second generation PRIDE concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(7), 597–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marinkovic, M.

McGehee, M. D.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Min, C. J.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muller, C.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.

J. Springer, B. Rech, W. Reetz, J. Muller, M. Vanecek, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Surface Relief Gratings Fabricated by Simple Soft Lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niggemann, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noriega, R.

Oh, S. H.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Surface Relief Gratings Fabricated by Simple Soft Lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Persson, N. K.

K. Tvingstedt, N. K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650–2652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phadke, S.

Rahachou, A.

K. Tvingstedt, N. K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raman, A.

Rech, B.

J. Springer, B. Rech, W. Reetz, J. Muller, M. Vanecek, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Rech, H. Wagner, “Potential of amorphous silicon for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 69, 155–167 (1999).

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reetz, W.

J. Springer, B. Rech, W. Reetz, J. Muller, M. Vanecek, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

Rim, S. B.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roman, L. S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, F.

F. Ruske, C. Jacobs, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, W. Werner, “Large area ZnO: Al films with tailored-light scattering properties for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8695–8698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, M.

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, T.

K. Yoshioka, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional compound elliptic lens concentrators using a yearly distributed insolation model,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 9–19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, K. Endoh, M. Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Design and properties of a refractive static concentrator module,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 34(1-4), 125–131 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

Schade, H.

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schock, H. W.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schope, G.

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scully, S. R.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W. E. I.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H. H.

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Shen, B. Maes, “Combined plasmonic gratings in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1202–A1210 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sittinger, V.

F. Ruske, C. Jacobs, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, W. Werner, “Large area ZnO: Al films with tailored-light scattering properties for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8695–8698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smole, E.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, E. Smole, M. Topic, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO: Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, G. F.

Springer, J.

J. Springer, B. Rech, W. Reetz, J. Muller, M. Vanecek, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

K. Yoshioka, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional compound elliptic lens concentrators using a yearly distributed insolation model,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 9–19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, K. Endoh, M. Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Design and properties of a refractive static concentrator module,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 34(1-4), 125–131 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Szyszka, B.

F. Ruske, C. Jacobs, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, W. Werner, “Large area ZnO: Al films with tailored-light scattering properties for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8695–8698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Topic, M.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, E. Smole, M. Topic, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO: Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tormen, M.

S. Dal Zilio, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, M. Tormen, “Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tvingstedt, K.

S. Dal Zilio, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, M. Tormen, “Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tvingstedt, N. K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

J. Springer, B. Rech, W. Reetz, J. Muller, M. Vanecek, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, H.

B. Rech, H. Wagner, “Potential of amorphous silicon for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 69, 155–167 (1999).

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Werner, W.

F. Ruske, C. Jacobs, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, W. Werner, “Large area ZnO: Al films with tailored-light scattering properties for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8695–8698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wieder, S.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F. X.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yakimov, A.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshioka, K.

K. Yoshioka, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional compound elliptic lens concentrators using a yearly distributed insolation model,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 9–19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, K. Endoh, M. Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Design and properties of a refractive static concentrator module,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 34(1-4), 125–131 (1994).
[CrossRef]

You, J. B.

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z. F.

Yun, S. J.

J. M. Lee, S. J. Yun, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lim, “Texturing of Ga-Doped ZnO Transparent Electrode for a-Si: H Thin Film Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid State 14(11), B124–B126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, E. Smole, M. Topic, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO: Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, S.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zozoulenko, I. V.

K. Tvingstedt, N. K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, S. H. Oh, J. Kim, D. Y. Kim, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Surface Relief Gratings Fabricated by Simple Soft Lithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(24), 3956–3963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

X. H. Li, W. C. H. Choy, L. J. Huo, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, B. F. Ding, X. Guo, Y. F. Li, J. H. Hou, J. B. You, Y. Yang, “Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(22), 3046–3052 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A-Mater. (1)

B. Rech, H. Wagner, “Potential of amorphous silicon for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 69, 155–167 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. I. Na, S.-S. Kim, S. S. Kwon, J. Jang, K. Juhwan, T. Lee, K. Dong-Yu, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, N. K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650–2652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid State (1)

J. M. Lee, S. J. Yun, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lim, “Texturing of Ga-Doped ZnO Transparent Electrode for a-Si: H Thin Film Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid State 14(11), B124–B126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

S. Dal Zilio, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, M. Tormen, “Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

J. Springer, B. Rech, W. Reetz, J. Muller, M. Vanecek, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, “Design and fabrication of low concentrating second generation PRIDE concentrator,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(7), 597–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, K. Endoh, M. Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Design and properties of a refractive static concentrator module,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 34(1-4), 125–131 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshioka, A. Suzuki, T. Saitoh, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional compound elliptic lens concentrators using a yearly distributed insolation model,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 9–19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ruske, C. Jacobs, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, W. Werner, “Large area ZnO: Al films with tailored-light scattering properties for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8695–8698 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO: Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Krc, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, E. Smole, M. Topic, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO: Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Muller, G. Schope, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H. P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Goetzberger, “Optical confinement in thin Si-solar cells by diffuse back reflectors,” in Fiftheenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 867–870 (1981).

J. Jin, J. Lee, S. Jeong, S. Yang, J.-H. Ko, H.-G. Im, S.W. Baek, J.Y. Lee, B.S. Bae, “High-performance hybrid plastic films: A robust electrode platform for thin-film optoelectronics,” Energy Environ. Sci., DOI:
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption characteristics of the active layer according to the propagation angle variation (represented in the inset) for a thin-film PV using PCDTBT:PC70BM as an active material for TE (open) and TM (closed) polarized light with a wavelength of 500nm. The purple and green lines indicate the incoherent and coherent calculation, respectively. (b) n (real part) and k (imaginary part) values of the refractive indices used in the optical simulations. (c) Description of the annual (θa) and daily (θd) incident angle variation, where a 1D array structure is aligned along the east–west line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Light trapping system using MLA, (b) normalized Jsc variations with the variations of θa and θd for MLA-PV with different widths over the period (Went). Ray-traced cross-section images for θa = 0° are shown in the inset when θd = 0°, 30° and 60°. To obtain a clear picture, the bottom cell and blocking mirrors were assumed to absorb the light for ray-tracing perfectly. (c) The contours of points (θa, θd), where the normalized Jsc becomes 1 for MLA-PVs when Went = 0.10 and 0.15, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) V-shaped light trapping configuration, (b) normalized Jsc variation with the variation of θa (where θd = 0°) for V-shaped PVs with the different vertex angles (θv).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Geometrical characteristic of a parabola concentrating all of the incident rays parallel to the axis into a focus or reflecting them in a reverse manner (above), and DPT structure for perfect light trapping (below), (b) normalized Jsc variation with the variation of θa (θd = 0°) for DPT-PV. Ray-traced images are also shown when θa = 0° and ± 23.5°, where only rays having power greater than 10% of an initial power appear.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the light trapping characteristics for the MLA, V-shaped and DPT configurations

Metrics