Abstract

A novel approach for fast generation of video holograms of three-dimensional (3-D) moving objects using a motion compensation-based novel-look-up-table (MC-N-LUT) method is proposed. Motion compensation has been widely employed in compression of conventional 2-D video data because of its ability to exploit high temporal correlation between successive video frames. Here, this concept of motion-compensation is firstly applied to the N-LUT based on its inherent property of shift-invariance. That is, motion vectors of 3-D moving objects are extracted between the two consecutive video frames, and with them motions of the 3-D objects at each frame are compensated. Then, through this process, 3-D object data to be calculated for its video holograms are massively reduced, which results in a dramatic increase of the computational speed of the proposed method. Experimental results with three kinds of 3-D video scenarios reveal that the average number of calculated object points and the average calculation time for one object point of the proposed method, have found to be reduced down to 86.95%, 86.53% and 34.99%, 32.30%, respectively compared to those of the conventional N-LUT and temporal redundancy-based N-LUT (TR-N-LUT) methods.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. C. J. Kuo and M. H. Tsai, Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging, John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, 2007.
  22. O. Marques, Practical Image and Video Processing Using MATLAB, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2011.
  23. A. Barjatya, “Block matching algorithms for motion estimation,” in Technical Report, Utah State University (2004).
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2013 (1)

S.-C. Kim, K.-D. Na, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of computer-generated holograms of a 3-D object with N×N-point principle fringe patterns in the novel look-up table method,” Opt. Lasers Eng.51(3), 185–196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Memory size reduction of the novel look-up-table method using symmetry of Fresnel zone plate,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571B, 79571B-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Kim, W.-Y. Choe, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of hologram patterns by use of interline redundancy of 3-D object images,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 091305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Hardware implementation of N-LUT method using field programmable gate array technology,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571C, 79571C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ali, H.-E. Kim, D. Han, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Simplified novel look-up table method using compute unified device architecture,” 3D Research2(3), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Z. Liu, J.-W. Dong, Y.-Y. Pu, H.-X. He, B.-C. Chen, H.-Z. Wang, H. Zheng, and Y. Yu, “Fraunhofer computer-generated hologram for diffused 3D scene in Fresnel region,” Opt. Lett.36(11), 2128–2130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Holographic display of synthetic 3D dynamic scene,” 3D Research1(2), 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. W. M. Tsang, J. P. Liu, K. W. K. Cheung, and T.-C. Poon, “Modern Methods for fast generation of digital holograms,” 3D Research1(2), 11–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Ichihashi, and N. Takada, “Fast calculation of computer-generated-hologram on AMD HD5000 series GPU and OpenCL,” Opt. Express18(10), 9955–9960 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-10-9955 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

1993 (1)

M. Lucente, “Interactive computation of holograms using a look-up table,” J. Electron. Imaging2(1), 28–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ali, Z.

Z. Ali, H.-E. Kim, D. Han, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Simplified novel look-up table method using compute unified device architecture,” 3D Research2(3), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.-C.

Cheung, K. W. K.

P. W. M. Tsang, J. P. Liu, K. W. K. Cheung, and T.-C. Poon, “Modern Methods for fast generation of digital holograms,” 3D Research1(2), 11–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choe, W.-Y.

S.-C. Kim, W.-Y. Choe, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of hologram patterns by use of interline redundancy of 3-D object images,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 091305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.-W.

Fan, Q.

Z. Yang, Q. Fan, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, and J. Zhou, “A new method for producing computer generated holograms,” J. Opt.14(9), 095702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Holographic display of synthetic 3D dynamic scene,” 3D Research1(2), 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Holographic display of synthetic 3D dynamic scene,” 3D Research1(2), 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, D.

Z. Ali, H.-E. Kim, D. Han, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Simplified novel look-up table method using compute unified device architecture,” 3D Research2(3), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, H.-X.

Ichihashi, Y.

Ito, T.

Kim, E.-S

M.-W. Kwon, S.-H. Kim, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S Kim, “GPU-based implementation of one-dimensional N-LUT for fast computation of Fresnel hologram patterns of 3-D objects,” (submitted).

Kim, E.-S.

S.-C. Kim, K.-D. Na, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of computer-generated holograms of a 3-D object with N×N-point principle fringe patterns in the novel look-up table method,” Opt. Lasers Eng.51(3), 185–196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kim, J. M. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Effective memory reduction of the novel look-up table with one-dimensional sub-principle fringe patterns in computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Express20(11), 12021–12034 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-11-12021 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Hardware implementation of N-LUT method using field programmable gate array technology,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571C, 79571C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Kim, W.-Y. Choe, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of hologram patterns by use of interline redundancy of 3-D object images,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 091305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Memory size reduction of the novel look-up-table method using symmetry of Fresnel zone plate,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571B, 79571B-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Computational approaches for fast generation of digital 3-D video holograms,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(12), 1083–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Fast computation of hologram patterns of a 3D object using run-length encoding and novel look-up table methods,” Appl. Opt.48(6), 1030–1041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Effective generation of digital holograms of 3-D objects using a novel look-up table method,” Appl. Opt.47(19), D55–D62 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-C. Kim, J.-H. Yoon, and E.-S. Kim, “Fast generation of three-dimensional video holograms by combined use of data compression and lookup table techniques,” Appl. Opt.47, 5986–5995 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-E.

Z. Ali, H.-E. Kim, D. Han, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Simplified novel look-up table method using compute unified device architecture,” 3D Research2(3), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

Kim, N.

Z. Ali, H.-E. Kim, D. Han, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Simplified novel look-up table method using compute unified device architecture,” 3D Research2(3), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. C.

Kim, S.-C.

S.-C. Kim, K.-D. Na, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of computer-generated holograms of a 3-D object with N×N-point principle fringe patterns in the novel look-up table method,” Opt. Lasers Eng.51(3), 185–196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Memory size reduction of the novel look-up-table method using symmetry of Fresnel zone plate,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571B, 79571B-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Hardware implementation of N-LUT method using field programmable gate array technology,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571C, 79571C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Kim, W.-Y. Choe, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of hologram patterns by use of interline redundancy of 3-D object images,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 091305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Fast computation of hologram patterns of a 3D object using run-length encoding and novel look-up table methods,” Appl. Opt.48(6), 1030–1041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Computational approaches for fast generation of digital 3-D video holograms,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(12), 1083–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Kim, J.-H. Yoon, and E.-S. Kim, “Fast generation of three-dimensional video holograms by combined use of data compression and lookup table techniques,” Appl. Opt.47, 5986–5995 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Effective generation of digital holograms of 3-D objects using a novel look-up table method,” Appl. Opt.47(19), D55–D62 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-W. Kwon, S.-H. Kim, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S Kim, “GPU-based implementation of one-dimensional N-LUT for fast computation of Fresnel hologram patterns of 3-D objects,” (submitted).

Kim, S.-H.

M.-W. Kwon, S.-H. Kim, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S Kim, “GPU-based implementation of one-dimensional N-LUT for fast computation of Fresnel hologram patterns of 3-D objects,” (submitted).

Kwon, D.-W.

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Hardware implementation of N-LUT method using field programmable gate array technology,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571C, 79571C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Memory size reduction of the novel look-up-table method using symmetry of Fresnel zone plate,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571B, 79571B-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-W.

M.-W. Kwon, S.-H. Kim, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S Kim, “GPU-based implementation of one-dimensional N-LUT for fast computation of Fresnel hologram patterns of 3-D objects,” (submitted).

Liu, J.

Z. Yang, Q. Fan, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, and J. Zhou, “A new method for producing computer generated holograms,” J. Opt.14(9), 095702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. P.

P. W. M. Tsang, J. P. Liu, K. W. K. Cheung, and T.-C. Poon, “Modern Methods for fast generation of digital holograms,” 3D Research1(2), 11–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-Z.

Lucente, M.

M. Lucente, “Interactive computation of holograms using a look-up table,” J. Electron. Imaging2(1), 28–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, N.

Memmolo, P.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Holographic display of synthetic 3D dynamic scene,” 3D Research1(2), 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Na, K.-D.

S.-C. Kim, K.-D. Na, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of computer-generated holograms of a 3-D object with N×N-point principle fringe patterns in the novel look-up table method,” Opt. Lasers Eng.51(3), 185–196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, H.

Näsänen, R.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Holographic display of synthetic 3D dynamic scene,” 3D Research1(2), 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naughton, T. J.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Holographic display of synthetic 3D dynamic scene,” 3D Research1(2), 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, M.

Okada, N.

Park, J.-H.

Z. Ali, H.-E. Kim, D. Han, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Simplified novel look-up table method using compute unified device architecture,” 3D Research2(3), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paturzo, M.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Holographic display of synthetic 3D dynamic scene,” 3D Research1(2), 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poon, T.-C.

P. W. M. Tsang, J. P. Liu, K. W. K. Cheung, and T.-C. Poon, “Modern Methods for fast generation of digital holograms,” 3D Research1(2), 11–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.-Y.

Shimobaba, T.

Shiraki, A.

Sugie, T.

Takada, N.

Tsang, P. W. M.

P. W. M. Tsang, J. P. Liu, K. W. K. Cheung, and T.-C. Poon, “Modern Methods for fast generation of digital holograms,” 3D Research1(2), 11–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-Z.

Weng, J.

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, Q. Fan, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, and J. Zhou, “A new method for producing computer generated holograms,” J. Opt.14(9), 095702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.-H.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, Y.

Z. Yang, Q. Fan, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, and J. Zhou, “A new method for producing computer generated holograms,” J. Opt.14(9), 095702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

Zhou, J.

Z. Yang, Q. Fan, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, and J. Zhou, “A new method for producing computer generated holograms,” J. Opt.14(9), 095702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

3D Research (3)

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Holographic display of synthetic 3D dynamic scene,” 3D Research1(2), 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. W. M. Tsang, J. P. Liu, K. W. K. Cheung, and T.-C. Poon, “Modern Methods for fast generation of digital holograms,” 3D Research1(2), 11–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ali, H.-E. Kim, D. Han, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Simplified novel look-up table method using compute unified device architecture,” 3D Research2(3), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

M. Lucente, “Interactive computation of holograms using a look-up table,” J. Electron. Imaging2(1), 28–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

Z. Yang, Q. Fan, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, and J. Zhou, “A new method for producing computer generated holograms,” J. Opt.14(9), 095702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S.-C. Kim, W.-Y. Choe, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of hologram patterns by use of interline redundancy of 3-D object images,” Opt. Eng.50(9), 091305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

S.-C. Kim, K.-D. Na, and E.-S. Kim, “Accelerated computation of computer-generated holograms of a 3-D object with N×N-point principle fringe patterns in the novel look-up table method,” Opt. Lasers Eng.51(3), 185–196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Memory size reduction of the novel look-up-table method using symmetry of Fresnel zone plate,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571B, 79571B-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kwon, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Hardware implementation of N-LUT method using field programmable gate array technology,” Proc. SPIE7957, 79571C, 79571C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, 2007.

O. Marques, Practical Image and Video Processing Using MATLAB, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2011.

A. Barjatya, “Block matching algorithms for motion estimation,” in Technical Report, Utah State University (2004).

M.-W. Kwon, S.-H. Kim, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S Kim, “GPU-based implementation of one-dimensional N-LUT for fast computation of Fresnel hologram patterns of 3-D objects,” (submitted).

C. J. Kuo and M. H. Tsai, Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging, John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

T.-C. Poon, Digital Holography and Three-dimensional Display, Springer Verlag, 2007.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (1182 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1300 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3524 KB)     

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometric structure for N-LUT-based calculation of the hologram pattern of a 3-D object

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CGH generation process for the two object points with the N-LUT: (a) Two object points on the object plane of z1, (b) Shifting and adding process of the N-LUT, (c) Finally generated CGH pattern

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shift-invariance property of the N-LUT method for an object point

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Shift-invariance property of the N-LUT method for a 3-D moving object

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extraction of motion vectors from a moving object

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagram of the proposed method for fast generation of the video holograms of 3-D moving objects (PF: Previous frame, CF: Current frame, MV: Motion vectors, MC: Motion-compensated, Diff: Difference, I: Intensity, D: Depth)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A process of threshold technique-based object segmentation from the input 3-D scenes

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

3-D scenes of the 1st frame for each test video of (a) Case I (Media 1), (b) Case II (Media 2) and (c) Case III (Media 3)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Segmented object images of the ‘House’ and ‘Car’ for three kinds of test videos of Fig. 8: (a) Case I (Media 1), (b) Case II (Media 2), (c) Case III (Media 3)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Extraction of motion vectors of each segmented object between the two consecutive frames: (a)-(d) Outlines and center points for each segmented object, and (e)-(f) Motion vectors for each segmented object

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

A process of motion-compensation and derivation of the difference image: (a) Segmented ‘Car’ object of the previous frame, (b) Segmented Car’ object of the current frame, (c) Motion-compensated version of Fig. 10(a), and (d) Difference image derived from Fig. 10(c) and Fig. 10(b)

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Motion-compensated object images of the previous frames for each test video of (a) Case I (Media 1), (b) Case II (Media 2), and (c) Case III (Media 3)

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Difference images of the Car (left) and the ‘House’ (right) for each test video of (a) Case I (Media 1), (b) Case II (Media 2), and (c) Case III (Media 3)

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

A hologram generation process for 4 object points of the ‘Car’ object: (a) Object points of the previous frame and its motion-compensated version, (b) Object points of the current frame, (c) Difference between the object points of the motion-compensated version of Fig. 14(a) and those of the current frame of Fig. 14(b), (d) Hologram pattern for the object points of the previous frame, (e) Shifted version of the hologram pattern of Fig. 14(d) based on motion vectors, (f) Shifted version of the hologram pattern of Fig. 14(d) filled with the hologram pattern calculated for the blank region, and (g) Finally generated hologram pattern for the motion-compensated object points

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Reconstructed 3-D object images at the distances of 66mm and 75mm for each test video of (a) ‘Case I’ (Media 1), (b) ‘Case II’ (Media 2) and (c) ‘Case III’ (Media 3)

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison results of the (a)-(c) Number of object points to be calculated, and (d)-(f) Calculation time for one object point in the conventional N-LUT, TR-N-LUT and proposed methods, respectively for each test video of ‘Case I’, ‘Case II’ and ‘Case III’

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Calculated preprocessing and main processing times in the proposed method for each test video of (a) Case I, (b) Case II and (c) Case III

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Numbers of calculated object points and calculation times for one object point for each case of the conventional N-LUT, TR-N-LUT and proposed methods

Tables Icon

Table 2 Relative portion of the calculation time for motion-estimation & compensation in the total computation time of CGHs in the proposed method

Equations (14)

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T(x,y; z p ) 1 r p cos[ k r p +kxsin θ R + φ p ]
r p = (x x p ) 2 + (y y p ) 2 + z p 2
I(x,y)= p=1 N a p T( x x p ,y y p ; z p )
I A'' (x,y)= I A' (x x 1 ,y)
I A''' (x,y)= I A' (x,y y 1 )
B( x 2 , y 2 ,t+Δt)=A( x 1 + d x , y 1 + d y ,t)
MAD= 1 M 2 i=0 M1 j=0 M1 | C ij R ij |
MSE= 1 M 2 i=0 M1 j=0 M1 ( C ij R ij ) 2
I N Seg1 (x,y)=IN(x,y),DE P Seg1 (x,y)=DEP(x,y) for DEP(x,y)<T I N Seg2 (x,y)=IN(x,y),DE P Seg2 (x,y)=DEP(x,y) for DEP(x,y)>=T
( d xc , d yc )=( x c2 x c1 , y c2 y c1 )
I n (x,y)= S=1 SEG [ I S n1 (x d x ,y d y )+ I S B n1 (x,y)+ I S D n (x,y) ]
t N-LUT = t multi_amp × p total
t TR-N-LUT = t TR_EXT + t multi_amp ×( M disp + M add )
t Proposed = t SEG + t ME + t MC + t multi_amp ×( N disp + N add )

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