Abstract

We report on the experimental and theoretical study of the spatial fluctuations of the local density of states (EM-LDOS) and of the fluorescence intensity in the near-field of a gold nanoantenna. EM-LDOS, fluorescence intensity and topography maps are acquired simultaneously by scanning a fluorescent nanosource grafted on the tip of an atomic force microscope at the surface of the sample. The results are in good quantitative agreement with numerical simulations. This work paves the way for a full near-field characterization of an optical nanoantenna.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (6)

E. Castanié, V. Krachmalnicoff, A. Cazé, R. Pierrat, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Distance dependence of the local density of states in the near field of a disordered plasmonic film,” Opt. Lett.37, 3006–3008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Agio, “Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators,” Nanoscale4, 692–706 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature444, 740–743 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mat., 11, 781–787 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazé, R. Pierrat, and R. Carminati, “Radiative and non-radiative local density of states on disordered plasmonic films,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl.10, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

S. Y. Suck, S. Collin, N. Bardou, Y. De Wilde, and G. Tessier, “Imaging the three-dimensional scattering pattern of plasmonic nanodisk chains by digital heterodyne holography,” Opt. Lett.36, 849–851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Frimmer, Y. Chen, and A.F. Koenderink, “Scanning emitter lifetime imaging microscopy for spontaneous emission control,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 123602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sapienza, P. Bondareff, R. Pierrat, B. Habert, R. Carminati, and N. F. van Hulst, “Long-tail statistics of the purcell factor in disordered media driven by near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 163902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Canneson, I. Mallek-Zouari, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Mahler, B. Dubertret, and J.-P. Hermier, “Strong Purcell effect observed in single thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals coupled to localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 245423 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

V. Krachmalnicoff, E. Castanié, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Fluctuations of the local density of states probe localized surface plasmons on disordered metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 183901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Birowosuto, S. E. Skipetrov, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Observation of spatial fluctuations of the local density of states in random photonic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 013904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science327, 1352–1355 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vandenbem, D. Brayer, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Controlling the quantum yield of a dipole emitter with coupled plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B81, 085444 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10, 4566–4570 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. Vandenbem, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Fluorescence signal of a single emitter coupled to a nanoparticle through a plasmonic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.11, 114007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Exp.16, 3008–3020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, “Surface electromagnetic waves thermally excited: Radiative heat transfer, coherence properties and Casimir forces revisited in the near field,” Surf. Sci. Rep.57, 59–112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, “Nanoantennas for light emission,” Science308, 1561–1563 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C.M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission in the near field of two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett.30, 3210–3212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P.C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, and A. Rahmani, “Coupled dipole method for scatterers with large permittivity,” Phys. Rev. E70, 036606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, “Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 147–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Joulain, R. Carminati, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, “Definition and measurement of the local density of electromagnetic states close to an interface,” Phys. Rev. B68, 245405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature424, 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Chicanne, T. David, R. Quidant, J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, E. Bourillot, and A. Dereux, “Imaging the local density of states of optical corrals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 097402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc.202, 2–6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single- molecule light source,” Nature405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Karrai and I. Tiemann, “Interfacial shear force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62, 13174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Lieberman, S. Harush, A. Lewis, and R. Kopelman, “A light source smaller than the optical wavelength,” Science247, 59–61 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agio, M.

M. Agio, “Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators,” Nanoscale4, 692–706 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, “Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 147–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Al-Hmoud, M.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, G.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardou, N.

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birowosuto, M. D.

M. D. Birowosuto, S. E. Skipetrov, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Observation of spatial fluctuations of the local density of states in random photonic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 013904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bondareff, P.

R. Sapienza, P. Bondareff, R. Pierrat, B. Habert, R. Carminati, and N. F. van Hulst, “Long-tail statistics of the purcell factor in disordered media driven by near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 163902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Exp.16, 3008–3020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bourillot, E.

C. Chicanne, T. David, R. Quidant, J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, E. Bourillot, and A. Dereux, “Imaging the local density of states of optical corrals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 097402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratschitsch, R.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brayer, D.

C. Vandenbem, D. Brayer, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Controlling the quantum yield of a dipole emitter with coupled plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B81, 085444 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buil, S.

D. Canneson, I. Mallek-Zouari, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Mahler, B. Dubertret, and J.-P. Hermier, “Strong Purcell effect observed in single thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals coupled to localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 245423 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Canneson, D.

D. Canneson, I. Mallek-Zouari, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Mahler, B. Dubertret, and J.-P. Hermier, “Strong Purcell effect observed in single thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals coupled to localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 245423 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

E. Castanié, V. Krachmalnicoff, A. Cazé, R. Pierrat, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Distance dependence of the local density of states in the near field of a disordered plasmonic film,” Opt. Lett.37, 3006–3008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature444, 740–743 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazé, R. Pierrat, and R. Carminati, “Radiative and non-radiative local density of states on disordered plasmonic films,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl.10, 339 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sapienza, P. Bondareff, R. Pierrat, B. Habert, R. Carminati, and N. F. van Hulst, “Long-tail statistics of the purcell factor in disordered media driven by near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 163902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vandenbem, D. Brayer, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Controlling the quantum yield of a dipole emitter with coupled plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B81, 085444 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Krachmalnicoff, E. Castanié, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Fluctuations of the local density of states probe localized surface plasmons on disordered metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 183901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vandenbem, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Fluorescence signal of a single emitter coupled to a nanoparticle through a plasmonic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.11, 114007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, “Surface electromagnetic waves thermally excited: Radiative heat transfer, coherence properties and Casimir forces revisited in the near field,” Surf. Sci. Rep.57, 59–112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Joulain, R. Carminati, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, “Definition and measurement of the local density of electromagnetic states close to an interface,” Phys. Rev. B68, 245405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Castanié, E.

E. Castanié, V. Krachmalnicoff, A. Cazé, R. Pierrat, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Distance dependence of the local density of states in the near field of a disordered plasmonic film,” Opt. Lett.37, 3006–3008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krachmalnicoff, E. Castanié, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Fluctuations of the local density of states probe localized surface plasmons on disordered metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 183901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cazé, A.

Chan, I. Y.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaumet, P.C.

P.C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, and A. Rahmani, “Coupled dipole method for scatterers with large permittivity,” Phys. Rev. E70, 036606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature444, 740–743 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Frimmer, Y. Chen, and A.F. Koenderink, “Scanning emitter lifetime imaging microscopy for spontaneous emission control,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 123602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chicanne, C.

C. Chicanne, T. David, R. Quidant, J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, E. Bourillot, and A. Dereux, “Imaging the local density of states of optical corrals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 097402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature444, 740–743 (2012).
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R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mat., 11, 781–787 (2012).
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J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Exp.16, 3008–3020 (2008).
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Roch, J.-F.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 153118 (2012).
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S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 017402 (2006).
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L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rondin, L.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 017402 (2006).
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J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single- molecule light source,” Nature405, 325–328 (2000).
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Sapienza, L.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science327, 1352–1355 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapienza, R.

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mat., 11, 781–787 (2012).
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R. Sapienza, P. Bondareff, R. Pierrat, B. Habert, R. Carminati, and N. F. van Hulst, “Long-tail statistics of the purcell factor in disordered media driven by near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 163902 (2011).
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S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc.202, 2–6 (2001).
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P.C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, and A. Rahmani, “Coupled dipole method for scatterers with large permittivity,” Phys. Rev. E70, 036606 (2004).
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Shin, C.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
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Skipetrov, S. E.

M. D. Birowosuto, S. E. Skipetrov, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Observation of spatial fluctuations of the local density of states in random photonic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 013904 (2010).
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Smolka, S.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science327, 1352–1355 (2010).
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Soukoulis, C.M.

Spinicelli, P.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stobbe, S.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science327, 1352–1355 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suck, S. Y.

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
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R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 026802 (2010).
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Tessier, G.

Tetienne, J.-P.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thiaville, A.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thyrrestrup, H.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science327, 1352–1355 (2010).
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K. Karrai and I. Tiemann, “Interfacial shear force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62, 13174 (2000).
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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K.J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature424, 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mat., 11, 781–787 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sapienza, P. Bondareff, R. Pierrat, B. Habert, R. Carminati, and N. F. van Hulst, “Long-tail statistics of the purcell factor in disordered media driven by near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 163902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
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C. Vandenbem, D. Brayer, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Controlling the quantum yield of a dipole emitter with coupled plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B81, 085444 (2010).
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C. Vandenbem, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Fluorescence signal of a single emitter coupled to a nanoparticle through a plasmonic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.11, 114007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, W. L.

M. D. Birowosuto, S. E. Skipetrov, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Observation of spatial fluctuations of the local density of states in random photonic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 013904 (2010).
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C. Chicanne, T. David, R. Quidant, J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, E. Bourillot, and A. Dereux, “Imaging the local density of states of optical corrals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 097402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Exp.16, 3008–3020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, A.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, “Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 147–149 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc.202, 2–6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

C. Vandenbem, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Fluorescence signal of a single emitter coupled to a nanoparticle through a plasmonic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.11, 114007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10, 4566–4570 (2010).
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Nanoscale (1)

M. Agio, “Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators,” Nanoscale4, 692–706 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mat. (1)

R. Sapienza, T. Coenen, J. Renger, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, and A. Polman, “Deep-subwavelength imaging of the modal dispersion of light,” Nat. Mat., 11, 781–787 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature444, 740–743 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature424, 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single- molecule light source,” Nature405, 325–328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455, 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Exp.16, 3008–3020 (2008).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

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A. Cazé, R. Pierrat, and R. Carminati, “Radiative and non-radiative local density of states on disordered plasmonic films,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl.10, 339 (2012).
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Phys. Rev. B (4)

D. Canneson, I. Mallek-Zouari, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Mahler, B. Dubertret, and J.-P. Hermier, “Strong Purcell effect observed in single thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals coupled to localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 245423 (2011).
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K. Joulain, R. Carminati, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, “Definition and measurement of the local density of electromagnetic states close to an interface,” Phys. Rev. B68, 245405 (2003).
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C. Vandenbem, D. Brayer, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, and R. Carminati, “Controlling the quantum yield of a dipole emitter with coupled plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B81, 085444 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Karrai and I. Tiemann, “Interfacial shear force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62, 13174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P.C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, and A. Rahmani, “Coupled dipole method for scatterers with large permittivity,” Phys. Rev. E70, 036606 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julié, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, “Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 153902 (2007).
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C. Chicanne, T. David, R. Quidant, J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, E. Bourillot, and A. Dereux, “Imaging the local density of states of optical corrals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 097402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 017402 (2006).
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P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 113002 (2006).
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R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Birowosuto, S. E. Skipetrov, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Observation of spatial fluctuations of the local density of states in random photonic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 013904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sapienza, P. Bondareff, R. Pierrat, B. Habert, R. Carminati, and N. F. van Hulst, “Long-tail statistics of the purcell factor in disordered media driven by near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 163902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science327, 1352–1355 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
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K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, “Surface electromagnetic waves thermally excited: Radiative heat transfer, coherence properties and Casimir forces revisited in the near field,” Surf. Sci. Rep.57, 59–112 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (1847 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of the experimental setup. The active AFM tip is mounted on a piezoelectric system allowing the positioning of the tip within the laser diffraction limited spot. The excitation and fluorescence photons are respectively focused and collected from the same high NA objective in confocal geometry. The sample can be moved on the XY plane to perform the fluorescence intensity, EM-LDOS and topography maps. (b) Wide-field fluorescence image of the beads spread on the microscope coverslip. The tip can be seen on the right side of the image. One bead is grafted on the apex of the tip (see Media 1 in supplemental data). (c) Artist view of the active AFM tip scanning the near-field of the gold nanoantenna.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results: (a) Topography of the sample. (b) Fluorescence intensity map. (c) Decay rate (EM-LDOS) map. The contour of the topographic relief (dashed line), as measured by the active AFM asymmetric probe (see text), is reported on the three maps to guide the eye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top view of the topography of the discretized trimer. Note that the trimer is 30nm thick, like the one used in the experiment; (b) Numerical fluorescence signal map (expressed in arbitrary units); (c) Numerical EM-LDOS map normalized to its value in vacuum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Computed normalized EM-LDOS maps for two distances d between the bottom of the bead and the top of the trimer. (a–b) Average over 100 emitters randomly located in the bead; (c–d) Contribution of the 48 emitters located in the lower half of the bead; (e–f) Contribution of the 52 emitters located in the upper half of the bead. (g–h) Section view of the maps (a,c,e) and (b,d,f) respectively along the line shown on the maps. Note that in this case the EM-LDOS has been normalized by the maximum value of each map ρmax to quantify the contrast of the image. λexc = 560nm; λfluo = 605nm. Diameter of the bead: 100nm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ = π ω 3 ε 0 h ¯ | p | 2 ρ ( r , ω ) ,
S = C [ Ω η ( u , ω fluo ) d Ω ] σ ( ω exc ) K 2 ( ω exc ) I inc .
E ( r , ω ) = E 0 ( r , ω ) + ω 2 c 2 [ ε ( r , ω ) 1 ] G 0 ( r , r , ω ) E ( r , ω ) d 3 r ,
ρ ( r 0 , ω ) ρ 0 = 2 π k 0 Im Tr [ G ( r 0 , r 0 , ω ) ] ,
F = [ Ω η ( u , ω fluo ) d Ω ] K 2 ( ω exc ) .

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