Abstract

In this paper we introduce new variables that can be used to retrieve the atmospheric continuum emission in the inversion of remote sensing measurements. This modification tackles the so-called sloppy model problem. We test this approach on an extensive set of real measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding. The newly introduced variables permit to achieve a more stable inversion and a smaller value of the minimum of the cost function.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. R. Curtis, “Discussion of a statistical model for water vapor absorption,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.78, 638–640 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. L. Godson, “The evaluation of infrared radiative fluxes due to atmospheric water vapour,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.79, 367–379 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. K. Transtrum, B. B. Machta, and J. P. Sethna, “Geometry of nonlinear least squares with applications to sloppy models and optimization,” Phys. Rev. E83, 036701 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Lampton, “Damping-undamping strategies for the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least- squares method,” Comput. Phys.11, 110–115 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “A self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization method for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1883–1897 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “Iterative approach to self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Opt. Express, 19, 26696–26709 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data reduction and error analysis for the physical sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 2003).
  13. C. D. Rodgers, Inverse methods for atmospheric sounding: Theory and practice Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, (World Scientific, 2000).

2013 (1)

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. K. Transtrum, B. B. Machta, and J. P. Sethna, “Geometry of nonlinear least squares with applications to sloppy models and optimization,” Phys. Rev. E83, 036701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “Iterative approach to self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Opt. Express, 19, 26696–26709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “A self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization method for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1883–1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

M. Lampton, “Damping-undamping strategies for the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least- squares method,” Comput. Phys.11, 110–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

W. L. Godson, “The evaluation of infrared radiative fluxes due to atmospheric water vapour,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.79, 367–379 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

A. R. Curtis, “Discussion of a statistical model for water vapor absorption,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.78, 638–640 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Belotti, C.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data reduction and error analysis for the physical sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 2003).

Birk, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blom, C.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, A.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ceccherini, S.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, A. R.

A. R. Curtis, “Discussion of a statistical model for water vapor absorption,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.78, 638–640 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Dehn, A.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Delbouille, L.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B. M.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B.M.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dudhia, A.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehhalt, D.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Funke, B.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gessner, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Godson, W. L.

W. L. Godson, “The evaluation of infrared radiative fluxes due to atmospheric water vapour,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.79, 367–379 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Höpfner, M.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hpfner, M.

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jay, V.

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kerridge, B. J.

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleinert, A.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koopman, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lampton, M.

M. Lampton, “Damping-undamping strategies for the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least- squares method,” Comput. Phys.11, 110–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Langen, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

López-Puertas, M.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Machta, B. B.

M. K. Transtrum, B. B. Machta, and J. P. Sethna, “Geometry of nonlinear least squares with applications to sloppy models and optimization,” Phys. Rev. E83, 036701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P. E.

Mosner, P.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nett, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niro, F.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oelhaf, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Payne, V.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perron, G.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piccolo, C.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raspollini, P.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reburn, J.

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J. J.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J.J.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ridolfi, M.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “Iterative approach to self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Opt. Express, 19, 26696–26709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “A self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization method for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1883–1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. K.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data reduction and error analysis for the physical sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 2003).

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse methods for atmospheric sounding: Theory and practice Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, (World Scientific, 2000).

Schreier, F.

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sembhi, H.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sethna, J. P.

M. K. Transtrum, B. B. Machta, and J. P. Sethna, “Geometry of nonlinear least squares with applications to sloppy models and optimization,” Phys. Rev. E83, 036701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sgheri, L.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “Iterative approach to self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Opt. Express, 19, 26696–26709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “A self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization method for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1883–1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siddans, R.

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spang, R.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Transtrum, M. K.

M. K. Transtrum, B. B. Machta, and J. P. Sethna, “Geometry of nonlinear least squares with applications to sloppy models and optimization,” Phys. Rev. E83, 036701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

von Clarmann, T.

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt.39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wells, R. J.

Zander, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (3)

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. López-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MI-PAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. López-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi and L. Sgheri, “A self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization method for atmospheric profile retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1883–1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. (1)

P. Raspollini, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, A. Dehn, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. López-Puertas, F. Niro, J.J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, H. Sembhi, L. Sgheri, and T. von Clarmann, “Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.6, 461–518 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. (1)

M. Lampton, “Damping-undamping strategies for the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least- squares method,” Comput. Phys.11, 110–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

T. von Clarmann, M. Hpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, and J.-M. Flaud, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: The AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer78(3–4), 381–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. K. Transtrum, B. B. Machta, and J. P. Sethna, “Geometry of nonlinear least squares with applications to sloppy models and optimization,” Phys. Rev. E83, 036701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

A. R. Curtis, “Discussion of a statistical model for water vapor absorption,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.78, 638–640 (1952).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Godson, “The evaluation of infrared radiative fluxes due to atmospheric water vapour,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.79, 367–379 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data reduction and error analysis for the physical sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 2003).

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse methods for atmospheric sounding: Theory and practice Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, (World Scientific, 2000).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Probability density of the log10 of the spectral condition number of the GN approximation of the Hessian of the cost function, at first and last iteration. Retrieval of temperature (left panel) and CFC-11 (right panel)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Behavior of normalized χ2 versus latitude for the NOM_R and CONT_R approaches for the October 2007 orbits. Each panel refers to the target indicated in the plot.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Average retrieval performances in a sample of 12 MIPAS orbits.

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Table 2 Average retrieval performances in a sample of 1 month of orbits.

Equations (18)

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d d x I ( x ) = K σ I ( x ) ,
S ( σ ) = B 0 ( σ ) τ ( σ , 0 , s obs ) + 0 s obs B ( σ , T ( s ) ) s τ ( σ , s , s obs ) d s .
S ( σ ) = l = 1 N B ( σ , T l e ) ( 1 τ σ , l ) j = 1 l 1 τ σ , j ,
τ σ , l = exp ( m k σ , m ( p l e , T l e ) c l , m ) = m exp ( k σ , m ( p l e , T l e ) c l , m ) m τ σ , l , m ,
c l , m = l x m ( z ) η ( z ) d s d z ( z ) d z ,
k l , c = a l , i k i + b l , i k i 1 ,
τ l , c exp ( k l , c c l , air ) = exp ( ( a l , i k i + b l , i k i 1 ) c l , air ) .
ξ i = exp ( k i C air ) ,
τ l , c = ξ i a l , i c l , air / C air ξ i 1 b l , i c l , air / C air .
S ( σ ) k j = l S ( σ ) τ l , c τ l , c k j ,
S ( σ ) ξ j = j S ( σ ) τ l , c τ l , c ξ j .
τ l , c ξ i = a l , i c l , air C air τ l , c ξ i , τ l , c ξ i 1 = b l , i c l , air C air τ l , c ξ i 1 .
A l , i = l z i 1 z z i 1 z i η ( z ) d s d z ( z ) d z , B l , i = l z z i z i 1 z i η ( z ) d s d z ( z ) d z ,
c l , m = A l , i x i + B l , i x i 1 .
τ σ , l , m = ζ i k l , m ( σ ) A l , i / C m ζ i 1 k l , m ( σ ) B l , i / C m .
S ( σ ) ζ j = l S ( σ ) τ σ , l , m τ σ , l , m ζ j .
τ σ , l , m ζ i = A l , i k l , m ( σ ) C m τ σ , l , m ζ i , τ σ , l , m ζ i 1 = B l , i k l , m ( σ ) C m τ σ , l , m ζ i 1 .
Ω 2 = 100 1 n 2 i = 2 n 1 [ x i x i 1 x i + 1 x i 1 z i + 1 z i 1 ( z i z i 1 ) ] 2 .

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