Abstract

We present single shot nanoscale imaging using a table-top femtosecond soft X-ray laser harmonic source at a wavelength of 32 nm. We show that the phase retrieval process in coherent diffractive imaging critically depends on beam quality. Coherence and image fidelity are measured from single-shot coherent diffraction patterns of isolated nano-patterned slits. Impact of flux, wave front and coherence of the soft X-ray beam on the phase retrieval process and the image quality are discussed. After beam improvements, a final image reconstruction is presented with a spatial resolution of 78 nm (half period) in a single 20 fs laser harmonic shot.

© 2013 OSA

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2010 (4)

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot femtosecond x-ray holography using extended references,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(9), 093901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. R. N. C. Maia, T. Ekeberg, D. van der Spoel, and J. Hajdu, “Hawk: the image reconstruction package for coherent x-ray diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Cryst.43(6), 1535–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New J. Phys.11(2), 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Miao, J. Steinbrener, J. Nelson, D. Shapiro, A. Stewart, J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express17(16), 13541–13553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, C. Hauri, A.-S. Morlens, G. Rey, C. Valentin, E. Papalarazou, J.-P. Goddet, S. Sebban, F. Burgy, P. Mercère, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Fajardo, H. Merdji, and J.-P. Caumes, “Optimization of the wave front of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(3), 459–463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B75(10), 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, M. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Effectiveness of iterative algorithms in recovering phase in the presence of noise,” Acta Crystallogr. A63(1), 36–42 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Gaffney and H. N. Chapman, “Imaging atomic structure and dynamics with ultrafast x-ray scattering,” Science316(5830), 1444–1448 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Probl.21(1), 37–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, and M. Howells, “Coherence and sampling requirements for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy101(2-4), 149–152 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2000 (1)

R. Neutze, R. Wouts, D. van der Spoel, E. Weckert, and J. Hajdu, “Potential for biomolecular imaging with femtosecond X-ray pulses,” Nature406(6797), 752–757 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Amirbekian, B.

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barth, R.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beetz, T.

Benner, W. H.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, M.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Billon, M.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogan, M. J.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bostedt, C.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bourhis, E.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutet, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boutu, W.

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot femtosecond x-ray holography using extended references,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(9), 093901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucourt, S.

J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, C. Hauri, A.-S. Morlens, G. Rey, C. Valentin, E. Papalarazou, J.-P. Goddet, S. Sebban, F. Burgy, P. Mercère, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Fajardo, H. Merdji, and J.-P. Caumes, “Optimization of the wave front of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(3), 459–463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Mercère, P. Zeitoun, M. Idir, S. Le Pape, D. Douillet, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “Hartmann wave-front measurement at 13.4 nm with λEUV/120 accuracy,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1534–1536 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgy, F.

J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, C. Hauri, A.-S. Morlens, G. Rey, C. Valentin, E. Papalarazou, J.-P. Goddet, S. Sebban, F. Burgy, P. Mercère, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Fajardo, H. Merdji, and J.-P. Caumes, “Optimization of the wave front of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(3), 459–463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burmeister, F.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caleman, C.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot femtosecond x-ray holography using extended references,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(9), 093901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J.-P.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, C. Hauri, A.-S. Morlens, G. Rey, C. Valentin, E. Papalarazou, J.-P. Goddet, S. Sebban, F. Burgy, P. Mercère, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Fajardo, H. Merdji, and J.-P. Caumes, “Optimization of the wave front of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(3), 459–463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Gaffney and H. N. Chapman, “Imaging atomic structure and dynamics with ultrafast x-ray scattering,” Science316(5830), 1444–1448 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15(6), 1662-1669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christophis, C.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, C.

Dilanian, R. A.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douillet, D.

Dovillaire, G.

J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, C. Hauri, A.-S. Morlens, G. Rey, C. Valentin, E. Papalarazou, J.-P. Goddet, S. Sebban, F. Burgy, P. Mercère, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Fajardo, H. Merdji, and J.-P. Caumes, “Optimization of the wave front of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(3), 459–463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Mercère, P. Zeitoun, M. Idir, S. Le Pape, D. Douillet, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “Hartmann wave-front measurement at 13.4 nm with λEUV/120 accuracy,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1534–1536 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dusterer, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ehrke, H.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eisebitt, S.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ekeberg, T.

F. R. N. C. Maia, T. Ekeberg, D. van der Spoel, and J. Hajdu, “Hawk: the image reconstruction package for coherent x-ray diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Cryst.43(6), 1535–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eyring, S.

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New J. Phys.11(2), 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fahimian, B. P.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fajardo, M.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot femtosecond x-ray holography using extended references,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(9), 093901 (2010).
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A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
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H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
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G. Williams, M. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Effectiveness of iterative algorithms in recovering phase in the presence of noise,” Acta Crystallogr. A63(1), 36–42 (2007).
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H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
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H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Spielmann, C.

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H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szoke, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szöke, A.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamanoi, F.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timneanu, N.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R. I.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
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F. R. N. C. Maia, T. Ekeberg, D. van der Spoel, and J. Hajdu, “Hawk: the image reconstruction package for coherent x-ray diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Cryst.43(6), 1535–1539 (2010).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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R. Neutze, R. Wouts, D. van der Spoel, E. Weckert, and J. Hajdu, “Potential for biomolecular imaging with femtosecond X-ray pulses,” Nature406(6797), 752–757 (2000).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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G. Williams, M. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Effectiveness of iterative algorithms in recovering phase in the presence of noise,” Acta Crystallogr. A63(1), 36–42 (2007).
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I. A. Vartanyants and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of quantum array structures with coherent and partially coherent diffraction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.10(6), 409–415 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(24), 243902 (2009).
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R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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R. Neutze, R. Wouts, D. van der Spoel, E. Weckert, and J. Hajdu, “Potential for biomolecular imaging with femtosecond X-ray pulses,” Nature406(6797), 752–757 (2000).
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J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New J. Phys.11(2), 023016 (2009).
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Whitehead, L. W.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(24), 243902 (2009).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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G. Williams, M. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Effectiveness of iterative algorithms in recovering phase in the presence of noise,” Acta Crystallogr. A63(1), 36–42 (2007).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B75(10), 104102 (2007).
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A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
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H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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R. Neutze, R. Wouts, D. van der Spoel, E. Weckert, and J. Hajdu, “Potential for biomolecular imaging with femtosecond X-ray pulses,” Nature406(6797), 752–757 (2000).
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H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
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J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, C. Hauri, A.-S. Morlens, G. Rey, C. Valentin, E. Papalarazou, J.-P. Goddet, S. Sebban, F. Burgy, P. Mercère, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Fajardo, H. Merdji, and J.-P. Caumes, “Optimization of the wave front of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(3), 459–463 (2008).
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Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

G. Williams, M. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Effectiveness of iterative algorithms in recovering phase in the presence of noise,” Acta Crystallogr. A63(1), 36–42 (2007).
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Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, C. Hauri, A.-S. Morlens, G. Rey, C. Valentin, E. Papalarazou, J.-P. Goddet, S. Sebban, F. Burgy, P. Mercère, M. Idir, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Fajardo, H. Merdji, and J.-P. Caumes, “Optimization of the wave front of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(3), 459–463 (2008).
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D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Probl.21(1), 37–50 (2005).
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J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

I. A. Vartanyants and I. K. Robinson, “Imaging of quantum array structures with coherent and partially coherent diffraction,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.10(6), 409–415 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Dusterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay x-ray holography,” Nature448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
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New J. Phys. (2)

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B75(10), 104102 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009).
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D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot femtosecond x-ray holography using extended references,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(9), 093901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

K. J. Gaffney and H. N. Chapman, “Imaging atomic structure and dynamics with ultrafast x-ray scattering,” Science316(5830), 1444–1448 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, and M. Howells, “Coherence and sampling requirements for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy101(2-4), 149–152 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the harmonic beam wave front measurement and reconstructed intensity profiles of the beam at the source before (a) and after (b) optimization. Generation parameters in (a): cell length = 8 cm, gas pressure = 8 mbar, beam aperture = 24 mm and laser energy = 15 mJ, in (b), cell length = 8 cm, gas pressure = 8 mbar, beam aperture = 21 mm and laser energy = 15 mJ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the off-axis parabola alignment and profiles of the X-ray focal spot at different stages: (a) Non-optimized X-ray focal spot, presenting strong aberrations. (b) Optimized X-ray focal spot without the pupil. (c) X-ray focal spot after a pupil of 3.8 mm in diameter (reconstructed from the measured full beam wave front and a simulated pupil).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a): Black circles: Evolution of the fringe visibility of Young’s double slits with the generating gas pressure. Red triangles: Total photon number diffracted by the Young’s double slit, normalized to the maximum value. Blue squares: Spatial resolution of the reconstruction of the Young’s double slit. All the points are from single shot data. (b): Reconstructed image of the Young’s double slit for gas pressure = 13 mbar and fringe visibility = 0.85 and the corresponding Phase Retrieval Transfer Function. The estimated half period resolution is equal to 138 nm. The pressure range used here is different from the one in Section 2 due to a change of the cell entrance and exit holes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-shot coherent soft X-ray diffraction pattern and the reconstructed image. (a) Measured diffracted intensity from the sample (log scale), obtained in single-shot (20 fs exposure time). (b) Reconstructed object amplitude with a 56 nm pixel size. On the upper left corner is the SEM image of the sample. The two white bars represent 500 nm. (c) PRTF of the image reconstructed with a half-period resolution of 78 nm, given at 1/e. (d) Lineout of the SEM image (dashed line) and reconstruction (continuous line) along the corresponding dashed line in (b).

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