Abstract

With the three-dimensional classical ensemble model, we investigate the correlated electron emission in nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of argon atoms by few-cycle laser pulses. Our calculations well reproduce the experimentally observed cross-shaped structure in the correlated two-electron momentum spectrum [ Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012)]. By tracing these NSDI trajectories, we find that besides the process of recollision-induced excitation with subsequent ionization just before the next field maximum, the recollision ionization also significantly contributes to the cross-shaped structure.

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    [CrossRef]
  2. D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69,2642–2645 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73,1227–1230 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Döner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nature Phys.7,428–433 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109,053004 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Revealing the multi-electron effects in sequential double ionization using classical simulations,” Opt. Express20,20201–20209 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,3546–3549 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Jo Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys.84,1011–1043 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Lett.36,2758–2760 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A70,043406 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express19,5627–5634 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71,1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51,561–568 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263003 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.14,013001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,133001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Z. Chen, Y. Liang, and C. D. Lin, “Quantum theory of recollisional (e, 2e) process in strong field nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104,253201 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Ye, X. Liu, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory diagnosis of a fingerlike pattern in the correlated electron momentum distribution in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,233003 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A82,053402 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B41,211002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T. Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A86,053405 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B41,125601 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express18,632–638 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. Ruiz, L. Plaja, L. Roso, and A. Becker, “Ab initio calculation of the double ionization of helium in a few-cycle laser pulse beyond the one-dimensional approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,053001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field double-ionization,” Opt. Express8,431–435 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97,103008 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105,083001 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A84,023405 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  39. F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102,173002 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. J. P. Paquette and J. L. Chaloupka, “Effect of realistic focal conditions on the strong-field ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A79,043410 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109,053004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Revealing the multi-electron effects in sequential double ionization using classical simulations,” Opt. Express20,20201–20209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Jo Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys.84,1011–1043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.14,013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T. Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A86,053405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express18,632–638 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, Y. Liang, and C. D. Lin, “Quantum theory of recollisional (e, 2e) process in strong field nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104,253201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A82,053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105,083001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102,173002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Paquette and J. L. Chaloupka, “Effect of realistic focal conditions on the strong-field ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A79,043410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B41,211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ye, X. Liu, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory diagnosis of a fingerlike pattern in the correlated electron momentum distribution in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,233003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B41,125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ruiz, L. Plaja, L. Roso, and A. Becker, “Ab initio calculation of the double ionization of helium in a few-cycle laser pulse beyond the one-dimensional approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,053001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97,103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A70,043406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field double-ionization,” Opt. Express8,431–435 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85,4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51,561–568 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73,1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71,1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69,2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” Phys. Rev. A27,2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73,1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruiz, L. Plaja, L. Roso, and A. Becker, “Ab initio calculation of the double ionization of helium in a few-cycle laser pulse beyond the one-dimensional approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,053001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Jo Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys.84,1011–1043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bergues, B.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betsch, K. J.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blaga, C. I.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69,2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97,103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camus, N.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaloupka, J. L.

J. P. Paquette and J. L. Chaloupka, “Effect of realistic focal conditions on the strong-field ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A79,043410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chandre, C.

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102,173002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69,2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, Y. Liang, and C. D. Lin, “Quantum theory of recollisional (e, 2e) process in strong field nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104,253201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirelli, C.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Döner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nature Phys.7,428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51,561–568 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71,1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

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Deipenwisch, J.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
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J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,133001 (2006).
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B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73,1227–1230 (1994).
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Doherty, B. J. S.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,133001 (2006).
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Döner, R.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Döner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nature Phys.7,428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, A.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
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Dörner, R.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
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Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
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Dürr, M.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Jo Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys.84,1011–1043 (2012).
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X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105,083001 (2010).
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S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97,103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field double-ionization,” Opt. Express8,431–435 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engel, V.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85,4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eremina, E.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ergler, Th.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263003 (2007).
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A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,3546–3549 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
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Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T. Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A86,053405 (2012).
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C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A70,043406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittingoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69,2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gross, E. K. U.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85,4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haan, S. L.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B41,211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97,103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field double-ionization,” Opt. Express8,431–435 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrwerth, O.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, K.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höhr, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W.

Huang, C.

Jagutzki, O.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo Ho, P.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Jo Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys.84,1011–1043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. G.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. R.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Karim, A.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97,103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keeffe, K. O.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Döner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nature Phys.7,428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, M.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kübel, M.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51,561–568 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69,2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K.C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73,1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

l’Huillier, A.

A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” Phys. Rev. A27,2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85,4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A70,043406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lezius, M.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

Z. Chen, Y. Liang, and C. D. Lin, “Quantum theory of recollisional (e, 2e) process in strong field nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104,253201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Q.

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.14,013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109,053004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Lett.36,2758–2760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express19,5627–5634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express19,2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A82,053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express18,632–638 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B41,125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

Z. Chen, Y. Liang, and C. D. Lin, “Quantum theory of recollisional (e, 2e) process in strong field nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104,253201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

D. Ye, X. Liu, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory diagnosis of a fingerlike pattern in the correlated electron momentum distribution in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,233003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Jo Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys.84,1011–1043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Ye, X. Liu, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory diagnosis of a fingerlike pattern in the correlated electron momentum distribution in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,233003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A70,043406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lompre, L. A.

A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” Phys. Rev. A27,2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109,053004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Revealing the multi-electron effects in sequential double ionization using classical simulations,” Opt. Express20,20201–20209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.14,013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express19,2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express19,5627–5634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Lett.36,2758–2760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A84,023405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A82,053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
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X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
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B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
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N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
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C. Ruiz, L. Plaja, L. Roso, and A. Becker, “Ab initio calculation of the double ionization of helium in a few-cycle laser pulse beyond the one-dimensional approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,053001 (2006).
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B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
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N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
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Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008).
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A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263003 (2007).
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C. Ruiz, L. Plaja, L. Roso, and A. Becker, “Ab initio calculation of the double ionization of helium in a few-cycle laser pulse beyond the one-dimensional approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,053001 (2006).
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B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
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K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51,561–568 (1995).
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X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
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A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
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A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
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A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263003 (2007).
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J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
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C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T. Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A86,053405 (2012).
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N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
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B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73,1227–1230 (1994).
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Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008).
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S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B41,211002 (2008).
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Smolarski, M.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Döner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nature Phys.7,428–433 (2011).
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Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
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A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
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J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, A.

Trump, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102,173002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73,1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004).
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X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105,083001 (2010).
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J. Phys. B

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N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The correlated two-electron momentum distributions for NSDI of Ar by 750 nm, 4-cycle linearly polarized laser pulses at an intensity of 3×1014 W/cm2. (a) all CEPs averaged, (b) ϕ =−0.4π, (c) ϕ =0.1π, (d) ϕ =0.6π. The two electrons are not distinguished.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The asymmetry of the correlated electron momentum spectrum as a function of the CEP ϕ for the intensity of 3×1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Final longitudinal momentum distribution of the first electron versus the second electron for ϕ =0.6π. Here, the two electrons are distinguished based on the order of final ionization after recollision (see text for detail). (b) The double ionization time (tDI) versus the recollision time (tr) for ϕ =0.6π. The white dashed curves indicate the maxima of the electric field (1.710T, 2.195T).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The correlated two-electron momentum distributions for NSDI events in regions G1 (a) and G2 (b) of Fig. 3(b). The two electrons are not distinguished.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two sample trajectories selected from groups G1 (the left column) and G2 (the right column) of Fig. 3(b). The panels from top to bottom show the longitudinal momenta, coordinate z in polarization direction, energies of two electrons and the momenta in y direction versus the time, respectively. The arrows indicate the recollision time (tr) and the vertical lines indicate the final double ionization time (tDI). The black dashed curve marks the laser electric field in arbitrary units.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Counts of NSDI trajectories versus the scattering angle β for ϕ =0.6π.

Equations (1)

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d 2 r i d t 2 = [ V n e ( r i ) + V e e ( r 1 + r 2 ) ] E ( t ) ,

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