Abstract

The spectral characteristics of four different types of apodized fiber Bragg gratings with a single π phase shift are analyzed based on the simulation. The 2-discrete Gaussian apodization is proved to have the most effective suppression to grating side mode. A novel asymmetrical distributed feedback fiber laser based on this apodization structure is presented and fabricated as well. The grating has a −20 dB side-mode suppression. The laser exhibits a high power ratio of backward to forward outputs. It has a relative intensity noise of −90dB/Hz and a linewidth of 20k Hz operating in a single polarization longitudinal mode.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

A. C. L. Wong, W. H. Chung, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Ultra-short distributed feedback fiber laser with sub-kilohertz linewidth for sensing applications,” Laser Phys.21(1), 163–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Pump-noise contribution to frequency noise and linewidth of distributed feedback fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 734–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. He, F. Li, T. Xu, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “High performance distributed feedback fiber laser sensor array system,” Proc. SPIE7634, 76340K, 76340K-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Cranch, G. H. Flockhart, and C. Kirkendall, “Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tikhomirov and S. Foster, “DFB FL sensor cross-coupling reduction,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(2), 533–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Yelen, L. B. Hickey, and M. Zervas, “A new design approach for fiber DFB lasers with improved efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. Poladian, B. Ashton, W. E. Padden, A. Michie, and C. Marra, “Characterisation of phase-shifts in gratings fabricated by over-dithering and simple displacement,” Opt. Fiber Technol.9(4), 173–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1999

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

Archambault, J.-L.

Ashton, B.

L. Poladian, B. Ashton, W. E. Padden, A. Michie, and C. Marra, “Characterisation of phase-shifts in gratings fabricated by over-dithering and simple displacement,” Opt. Fiber Technol.9(4), 173–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S. A.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barcelos, S.

Canning, J.

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W. H.

A. C. L. Wong, W. H. Chung, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Ultra-short distributed feedback fiber laser with sub-kilohertz linewidth for sensing applications,” Laser Phys.21(1), 163–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Churkin, D. V.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

Cranch, G.

G. Cranch, G. H. Flockhart, and C. Kirkendall, “Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flockhart, G. H.

G. Cranch, G. H. Flockhart, and C. Kirkendall, “Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foster, S.

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Pump-noise contribution to frequency noise and linewidth of distributed feedback fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 734–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tikhomirov and S. Foster, “DFB FL sensor cross-coupling reduction,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(2), 533–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

J. He, F. Li, T. Xu, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “High performance distributed feedback fiber laser sensor array system,” Proc. SPIE7634, 76340K, 76340K-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, L. B.

K. Yelen, L. B. Hickey, and M. Zervas, “A new design approach for fiber DFB lasers with improved efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ismagulov, A. E.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kablukov, S. I.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirkendall, C.

G. Cranch, G. H. Flockhart, and C. Kirkendall, “Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kringlebotn, J. T.

Laming, R. I.

Li, F.

J. He, F. Li, T. Xu, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “High performance distributed feedback fiber laser sensor array system,” Proc. SPIE7634, 76340K, 76340K-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. He, F. Li, T. Xu, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “High performance distributed feedback fiber laser sensor array system,” Proc. SPIE7634, 76340K, 76340K-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

Lovseth, S. W.

Lu, C.

A. C. L. Wong, W. H. Chung, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Ultra-short distributed feedback fiber laser with sub-kilohertz linewidth for sensing applications,” Laser Phys.21(1), 163–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marra, C.

L. Poladian, B. Ashton, W. E. Padden, A. Michie, and C. Marra, “Characterisation of phase-shifts in gratings fabricated by over-dithering and simple displacement,” Opt. Fiber Technol.9(4), 173–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, G.

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michie, A.

L. Poladian, B. Ashton, W. E. Padden, A. Michie, and C. Marra, “Characterisation of phase-shifts in gratings fabricated by over-dithering and simple displacement,” Opt. Fiber Technol.9(4), 173–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nikulin, M. A.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Padden, W. E.

L. Poladian, B. Ashton, W. E. Padden, A. Michie, and C. Marra, “Characterisation of phase-shifts in gratings fabricated by over-dithering and simple displacement,” Opt. Fiber Technol.9(4), 173–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Poladian, L.

L. Poladian, B. Ashton, W. E. Padden, A. Michie, and C. Marra, “Characterisation of phase-shifts in gratings fabricated by over-dithering and simple displacement,” Opt. Fiber Technol.9(4), 173–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

Ronnekleiv, E.

Smith, R.

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, D. Y.

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

A. C. L. Wong, W. H. Chung, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Ultra-short distributed feedback fiber laser with sub-kilohertz linewidth for sensing applications,” Laser Phys.21(1), 163–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, A.

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Pump-noise contribution to frequency noise and linewidth of distributed feedback fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 734–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tikhomirov and S. Foster, “DFB FL sensor cross-coupling reduction,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(2), 533–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. He, F. Li, T. Xu, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “High performance distributed feedback fiber laser sensor array system,” Proc. SPIE7634, 76340K, 76340K-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. C. L.

A. C. L. Wong, W. H. Chung, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Ultra-short distributed feedback fiber laser with sub-kilohertz linewidth for sensing applications,” Laser Phys.21(1), 163–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

J. He, F. Li, T. Xu, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “High performance distributed feedback fiber laser sensor array system,” Proc. SPIE7634, 76340K, 76340K-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yelen, K.

K. Yelen, L. B. Hickey, and M. Zervas, “A new design approach for fiber DFB lasers with improved efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M.

K. Yelen, L. B. Hickey, and M. Zervas, “A new design approach for fiber DFB lasers with improved efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. Yelen, L. B. Hickey, and M. Zervas, “A new design approach for fiber DFB lasers with improved efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Pump-noise contribution to frequency noise and linewidth of distributed feedback fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 734–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

G. Cranch, G. H. Flockhart, and C. Kirkendall, “Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Phys.

A. C. L. Wong, W. H. Chung, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Ultra-short distributed feedback fiber laser with sub-kilohertz linewidth for sensing applications,” Laser Phys.21(1), 163–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

D. Y. Stepanov, J. Canning, L. Poladian, R. Wyatt, G. Maxwell, R. Smith, and R. Kashyap, “Apodized distributed-feedback fiber laser,” Opt. Fiber Technol.5(2), 209–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Poladian, B. Ashton, W. E. Padden, A. Michie, and C. Marra, “Characterisation of phase-shifts in gratings fabricated by over-dithering and simple displacement,” Opt. Fiber Technol.9(4), 173–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. He, F. Li, T. Xu, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “High performance distributed feedback fiber laser sensor array system,” Proc. SPIE7634, 76340K, 76340K-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, and M. Milnes, A 16 channel fibre laser sensor array,” in Proc. of IEEE on Optical Fiber Technology/Australian Optical Society (IEEE,2006), pp.40–42.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Different phase-shift grating profiles in comparison; (b) Corresponding transmission spectra, and (c) reflection spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Presented profile of the DFB-FL in this work; (b) Calculated laser thresholds for the presented apodization and uniform DFB-FLs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The configuration of DFB-FL, and (b) schematic diagram for DFB-FL fabrication.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Grating spectrum of the DFB-FL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Outputs power curves, and (b) laser spectrum of the DFB-FL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) RIN spectrum, and (b) linewidth spectrum of the DFB-FL.

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