Abstract

We propose and demonstrate amplification of a single high-order mode in an optical fiber having an elongated, ribbon-like core having an effective mode area of area of 600 µm2 and an aspect ratio of 13:1. When operated as an amplifier, the double-clad, ytterbium doped, photonic crystal fiber produced 50% slope efficiency and a seed-limited power of 10.5 W, corresponding to a gain of 24 dB. The high order mode remained pure through 20 dB of gain without intervention or realignment.

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2012 (4)

2011 (4)

2008 (2)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express16(17), 13240–13266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

N. Lindlein, G. Leuchs, and S. Ramachandran, “Achieving Gaussian outputs from large-mode-area higher-order-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt.46(22), 5147–5157 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

W. Mohammed, M. Pitchumani, A. Mehta, and E. Johnson, “Selective excitation of the LP11 mode in step index fiber using a phase mask,” Opt. Eng.45, 074602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Wadsworth, R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. Knight, and P. Russell, “High power air-clad photonic crystal fibre laser,” Opt. Express11(1), 48–53 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1994 (1)

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Alunni, D.

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. P.

Barankov, R. A.

Barty, C. P. J.

Beach, R. J.

Bouwmans, G.

Brasure, L. D.

Bullington, A. L.

Clarkson, W. A.

Cooper, L. J.

Cutter, K. P.

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, J. W.

Drachenberg, D. R.

Eberhardt, R.

C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, K. Ludewigt, M. Gowin, E. ten Have, and M. Jung, “High average power spectral beam combining of four fiber amplifiers to 8.2 kW,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3118–3120 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, R. H. Page, L. D. Brasure, R. Wilcox, and S. Payne, “Scalable antiguided ribbon laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19(7), 1521–1534 (2002).

Fienup, J. R.

Fini, J. M.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

Gowin, M.

Hanna, D. C.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Johnson, E.

W. Mohammed, M. Pitchumani, A. Mehta, and E. Johnson, “Selective excitation of the LP11 mode in step index fiber using a phase mask,” Opt. Eng.45, 074602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D.

Jung, M.

Klingebiel, S.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.

Krashkevich, D.

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

Limpert, J.

C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, K. Ludewigt, M. Gowin, E. ten Have, and M. Jung, “High average power spectral beam combining of four fiber amplifiers to 8.2 kW,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3118–3120 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lindlein, N.

Ludewigt, K.

Lumeau, J.

Marciante, J. R.

Mead, R. W.

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, A.

W. Mohammed, M. Pitchumani, A. Mehta, and E. Johnson, “Selective excitation of the LP11 mode in step index fiber using a phase mask,” Opt. Eng.45, 074602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mermelstein, M.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Messerly, M. J.

Mitchell, S. C.

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, W.

W. Mohammed, M. Pitchumani, A. Mehta, and E. Johnson, “Selective excitation of the LP11 mode in step index fiber using a phase mask,” Opt. Eng.45, 074602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mokhov, S.

Nicholson, J. W.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pax, P. H.

Payne, S.

Payne, S. A.

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R.

Peschel, T.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pitchumani, M.

W. Mohammed, M. Pitchumani, A. Mehta, and E. Johnson, “Selective excitation of the LP11 mode in step index fiber using a phase mask,” Opt. Eng.45, 074602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Reekie, L.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, D. A.

Roser, F.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rotar, V.

Russell, P.

Russell, P. S. J.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

Schimpf, D. N.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, K. Ludewigt, M. Gowin, E. ten Have, and M. Jung, “High average power spectral beam combining of four fiber amplifiers to 8.2 kW,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3118–3120 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A. M.

SeGall, M.

Shkunov, V. V.

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C. W.

Sridharan, A. K.

Stappaerts, E. A.

ten Have, E.

Tiinnermann, A.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, J. E.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsybin, I.

Tünnermann, A.

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, P.

Wilcox, R.

Williams, R. B.

Wirth, C.

C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, K. Ludewigt, M. Gowin, E. ten Have, and M. Jung, “High average power spectral beam combining of four fiber amplifiers to 8.2 kW,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3118–3120 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B.

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Operation of cladding-pumped Yb3+-doped silica fibre lasers in 1 μm region,” Electron. Lett.30(11), 863–865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tiinnermann, “The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 537–545 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. J. Beach, M. D. Feit, S. C. Mitchell, K. P. Cutter, S. A. Payne, R. W. Mead, J. S. Hayden, D. Krashkevich, and D. Alunni, “Phase-locked antiguided multiple-core ribbon fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 670–672 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Mohammed, M. Pitchumani, A. Mehta, and E. Johnson, “Selective excitation of the LP11 mode in step index fiber using a phase mask,” Opt. Eng.45, 074602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

W. Wadsworth, R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. Knight, and P. Russell, “High power air-clad photonic crystal fibre laser,” Opt. Express11(1), 48–53 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express16(17), 13240–13266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Schimpf, R. A. Barankov, and S. Ramachandran, “Cross-correlated (C2) imaging of fiber and waveguide modes,” Opt. Express19(14), 13008–13019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Rockwell, V. V. Shkunov, and J. R. Marciante, “Semi-guiding high-aspect-ratio core (SHARC) fiber providing single-mode operation and an ultra-large core area in a compact coilable package,” Opt. Express19(15), 14746–14762 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Rockwell, V. V. Shkunov, and J. R. Marciante, “Semi-guiding high-aspect-ratio core (SHARC) fiber providing single-mode operation and an ultra-large core area in a compact coilable package,” Opt. Express19(15), 14746–14762 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, D. R. Drachenberg, J. P. Armstrong, and J. W. Dawson, “Mode-converters for rectangular-core fiber amplifiers to achieve diffraction-limited power scaling,” Opt. Express20(27), 28792–28800 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao and L. Zhu, “On-chip coherent combining of angled-grating diode lasers toward bar-scale single-mode lasers,” Opt. Express20(6), 6375–6384 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (5)

V. Khitrov and V. Shkunov, “Er-doped high aspect ratio core (HARC) rectangular fiber producing 5-mJ, 13-nsec pulses at 1572 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (2012), p. AW4A.5.

S. J. McNaught, P. Asman, H. Charles, H. Injeyan, A. Jankevics, A. M. Johnson, G. C. Jones, H. Komine, J. Machan, J. Marmo, M. McClellan, M. Simpson, J. Sollee, M. M. Valley, M. Weber, and S. B. Weiss, “100-kW coherently combined Nd:YAG MOPA laser array - OSA Technical Digest (CD),” in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. FThD2.

O. Andrusyak, D. Drachenberg, G. B. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Fiber laser system with kW-level spectrally-combined output,” in Solid State and Diode Laser Technology Review (2008), pp. 3–7.

D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High-power spectral beam combining of fiber lasers with ultra high-spectral density by thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings,” in Proc. of SPIE, Fiber Lasers VII: Technology, Systems, and Applications, J. W. Dawson, ed. (SPIE, 2011) 7914, 79141F (2011)
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, D. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. Glebov, “Coherent and spectral beam combining of fiber lasers using volume Bragg gratings,” in Proc. of SPIE, Laser Technology for Defense and Security VI, M. Dubinskii and S. G. Post, eds. (SPIE, 2010) 7686, 768615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated near field intensity plot for a four lobed ribbon fiber mode, (a) 2D intensity plot, and (b) 1D intensity plot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated far field intensity plot for a four lobed ribbon fiber mode, (a) 2D intensity plot, and (b) 1D intensity plot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single high order ribbon fiber mode illumination experimental setup. FFD = front focal distance, d = distance between effective focal length lens pair, BFD = back focal distance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated 1D beam cross-section at various planes in the mode excitation setup. The near field plots (left) are given as amplitudes so the phase of each lobe can be seen while the far field plots (right) are kept as intensities. (a) Amplitude just after the phase plate and spatial filter in the near field plane. (b) Intensity just before the spatial filter in the far field plane, and Fourier transform of (a) for lens pair f = 240 mm. (c) Intensity just after the spatial filter in the far field plane (solid), and intensity of the calculated far field of the target five-lobed ribbon fiber mode (dashed). (d) Amplitude just before the fiber facet, and Fourier transform of (c) for FC-L1 = 15 mm (solid), and intensity of the calculated target near field of the five-lobed ribbon fiber mode (dashed).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Photonic crystal ribbon fiber with a rectangular core cross-section, (b) An image of a ribbon fiber end face with overlaid illustrated binary phase plate transitions and target mode profile..

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized intensity cross-section of the measured (dashes), and calculated (solid) five-lobed mode a) near field in Watts per square µm per kW, b) far field in arbitrary units.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The near- and far-field intensity profiles of a single five lobed mode of the photonic crystal ribbon fiber of Fig. 5, calculated (a), and measured (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The rare-earth doped ribbon fiber drawn via a stack and draw technique having an air-cladding and inner guiding structure. (b) The near field (top), and far field (bottom) of the high order mode illuminated in the ytterbium doped ribbon fiber at low power

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ytterbium doped ribbon fiber amplifier experimental setup

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Signal power out (left) and gain (right) vs. coupled pump power.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectrum of the ribbon fiber amplifier at the highest measured power level of 10.5 W.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Near field (top row) and far field (bottom row) images of the signal output at four different gain values.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f=EFL= ( 1 f 1 + 1 f 2 d n f 1 f 2 ) 1
FFD=f+ f f 2 d
BFD=f f f 1 d
η= | E measured ( x,y ) E calculated(m) ( x,y )dxdy | 2
E measured = I measured e ϕ retrieved
E calulated(m) =| E calculated(m) | e ϕ calculated(m)

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