Abstract

We fabricated a flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diode (BEWOLED) with a structure of PET/Ni/Ag/Ni (3/6/3 nm)/ NPB (50 nm)/mCP (10 nm)/7% FIrpic:mCP (10 nm)/3% Ir(pq)2acac:TPBi (5 nm)/7% FIrpic:TPBi (5 nm)/TPBi (10 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/ Al (100 nm). To improve the performance of the BEWOLED, a multilayered metal stack anode of Ni/Ag/Ni treated with oxygen plasma for 60 sec was introduced into the OLED devices. The Ni/Ag/Ni anode effectively enhanced the probability of hole-electron recombination due to an efficient hole injection into and charge balance in an emitting layer. By comparing with a reference WOLED using ITO on glass, it is verified that the flexible BEWOLED showed a similar or better electroluminescence (EL) performance.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1137–1141 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Neyts, P. De Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, “Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(1), 114–119 (2000).
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2012

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1137–1141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Chen, D. S. Ghosh, D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, and V. Pruneri, “Highly stable Al-doped ZnO transparent conductors using an oxidized ultrathin metal capping layer at its percolation thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wangn, Y. Lou, S. Naka, and H. Okada, “High efficiency rubrene based inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices with a mixed single layer,” J. Lumin.130(7), 1198–1202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jou, C.-P. Wang, M.-H. Wu, H.-W. Lin, H. C. Pan, and B.-H. Liu, “High-efficiency flexible white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(32), 6626–6629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. C. Biesinger, B. P. Payne, L. W. M. Lau, A. Gerson, and R. S. C. Smart, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic chemical state quantification of mixed nickel metal, oxide and hydroxide systems,” Surf. Interface Anal.41(4), 324–332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, D. S. Ghosh, and V. Pruneri, “Nickel as an alternative semitransparent anode to indium tin oxide for polymer LED applications,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron.10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Sasi and K. G. Gopchandran, “Nanostructured mesoporous nickel oxide thin films,” Nanotechnology18(11), 115613 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Liu, M. Nishiura, Y. Wang, and Z. Hou, “π-conjugated aromatic enynes as a single-emitting component for white electroluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(17), 5592–5593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. J. Jang, C. J. Park, and H. S. Kwon, “Photoelectrochemical analysis on the passive film formed on Ni in pH 8.5 buffer solution,” Electrochim. Acta50(16–17), 3503–3508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Oswald and W. Brückner, “XPS depth profile analysis of non-stoichiometric NiO films,” Surf. Interface Anal.36(1), 17–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater.16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. M. Chan, T. Y. Hsu, and F. C. Hong, “Enhanced hole injections in organic light-emitting devices by depositing nickel oxide on indium tin oxide anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(10), 1899–1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Neyts, P. De Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, “Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(1), 114–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films371(1–2), 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

. K. Subramanyam, S. Uthanna, and B. Srinivasulu Naidu, “Preparation and characterization of CdO films deposited by dc magnetron reactive sputtering,” Mater. Lett.35(3–4), 214–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Metal oxides as a hole-injecting layer for an organic electroluminescent device,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.29(11), 2750–2753 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. B.

Berry, J. J.

K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biesinger, M. C.

M. C. Biesinger, B. P. Payne, L. W. M. Lau, A. Gerson, and R. S. C. Smart, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic chemical state quantification of mixed nickel metal, oxide and hydroxide systems,” Surf. Interface Anal.41(4), 324–332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, W.

S. Oswald and W. Brückner, “XPS depth profile analysis of non-stoichiometric NiO films,” Surf. Interface Anal.36(1), 17–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, D. R.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carballeda-Galicia, D. M.

D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films371(1–2), 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Castanedo-Pérez, R.

D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films371(1–2), 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chalamala, B.

T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, I. M.

I. M. Chan, T. Y. Hsu, and F. C. Hong, “Enhanced hole injections in organic light-emitting devices by depositing nickel oxide on indium tin oxide anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(10), 1899–1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. L.

T. L. Chen, D. S. Ghosh, D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, and V. Pruneri, “Highly stable Al-doped ZnO transparent conductors using an oxidized ultrathin metal capping layer at its percolation thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chesin, J. P.

K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheylan, S.

T. L. Chen, D. S. Ghosh, D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, and V. Pruneri, “Highly stable Al-doped ZnO transparent conductors using an oxidized ultrathin metal capping layer at its percolation thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, D. S. Ghosh, and V. Pruneri, “Nickel as an alternative semitransparent anode to indium tin oxide for polymer LED applications,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H.

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron.10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. W.

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W. J.

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.-K.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. H.

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D'Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater.16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Visschere, P.

Do, Y. R.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fork, D. K.

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater.16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerson, A.

M. C. Biesinger, B. P. Payne, L. W. M. Lau, A. Gerson, and R. S. C. Smart, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic chemical state quantification of mixed nickel metal, oxide and hydroxide systems,” Surf. Interface Anal.41(4), 324–332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, D. S.

T. L. Chen, D. S. Ghosh, D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, and V. Pruneri, “Highly stable Al-doped ZnO transparent conductors using an oxidized ultrathin metal capping layer at its percolation thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, D. S. Ghosh, and V. Pruneri, “Nickel as an alternative semitransparent anode to indium tin oxide for polymer LED applications,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginley, D. S.

K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gopchandran, K. G.

B. Sasi and K. G. Gopchandran, “Nanostructured mesoporous nickel oxide thin films,” Nanotechnology18(11), 115613 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grego, S.

T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F. C.

I. M. Chan, T. Y. Hsu, and F. C. Hong, “Enhanced hole injections in organic light-emitting devices by depositing nickel oxide on indium tin oxide anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(10), 1899–1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Z.

Y. Liu, M. Nishiura, Y. Wang, and Z. Hou, “π-conjugated aromatic enynes as a single-emitting component for white electroluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(17), 5592–5593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, T. Y.

I. M. Chan, T. Y. Hsu, and F. C. Hong, “Enhanced hole injections in organic light-emitting devices by depositing nickel oxide on indium tin oxide anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(10), 1899–1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hyung, G. W.

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. J.

H. J. Jang, C. J. Park, and H. S. Kwon, “Photoelectrochemical analysis on the passive film formed on Ni in pH 8.5 buffer solution,” Electrochim. Acta50(16–17), 3503–3508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. A.

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1137–1141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez-Sandoval, O.

D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films371(1–2), 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez-Sandoval, S.

D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films371(1–2), 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jou, J.-H.

J.-H. Jou, C.-P. Wang, M.-H. Wu, H.-W. Lin, H. C. Pan, and B.-H. Liu, “High-efficiency flexible white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(32), 6626–6629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. G.

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. Y.

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koo, J. R.

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krautz, D.

T. L. Chen, D. S. Ghosh, D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, and V. Pruneri, “Highly stable Al-doped ZnO transparent conductors using an oxidized ultrathin metal capping layer at its percolation thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, D. S. Ghosh, and V. Pruneri, “Nickel as an alternative semitransparent anode to indium tin oxide for polymer LED applications,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, H. S.

H. J. Jang, C. J. Park, and H. S. Kwon, “Photoelectrochemical analysis on the passive film formed on Ni in pH 8.5 buffer solution,” Electrochim. Acta50(16–17), 3503–3508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lau, L. W. M.

M. C. Biesinger, B. P. Payne, L. W. M. Lau, A. Gerson, and R. S. C. Smart, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic chemical state quantification of mixed nickel metal, oxide and hydroxide systems,” Surf. Interface Anal.41(4), 324–332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. H.

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. G.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-W.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, T. J.

T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-W.

J.-H. Jou, C.-P. Wang, M.-H. Wu, H.-W. Lin, H. C. Pan, and B.-H. Liu, “High-efficiency flexible white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(32), 6626–6629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.-H.

J.-H. Jou, C.-P. Wang, M.-H. Wu, H.-W. Lin, H. C. Pan, and B.-H. Liu, “High-efficiency flexible white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(32), 6626–6629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Nishiura, Y. Wang, and Z. Hou, “π-conjugated aromatic enynes as a single-emitting component for white electroluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(17), 5592–5593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, Y.

Z. Wangn, Y. Lou, S. Naka, and H. Okada, “High efficiency rubrene based inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices with a mixed single layer,” J. Lumin.130(7), 1198–1202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D.

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miedaner, A.

K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naka, S.

Z. Wangn, Y. Lou, S. Naka, and H. Okada, “High efficiency rubrene based inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices with a mixed single layer,” J. Lumin.130(7), 1198–1202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nam, H. J.

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

Nishiura, M.

Y. Liu, M. Nishiura, Y. Wang, and Z. Hou, “π-conjugated aromatic enynes as a single-emitting component for white electroluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(17), 5592–5593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, K.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Metal oxides as a hole-injecting layer for an organic electroluminescent device,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.29(11), 2750–2753 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noh, T.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. R.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okada, H.

Z. Wangn, Y. Lou, S. Naka, and H. Okada, “High efficiency rubrene based inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices with a mixed single layer,” J. Lumin.130(7), 1198–1202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. C.

K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. Oswald and W. Brückner, “XPS depth profile analysis of non-stoichiometric NiO films,” Surf. Interface Anal.36(1), 17–22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H. C.

J.-H. Jou, C.-P. Wang, M.-H. Wu, H.-W. Lin, H. C. Pan, and B.-H. Liu, “High-efficiency flexible white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(32), 6626–6629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. J.

H. J. Jang, C. J. Park, and H. S. Kwon, “Photoelectrochemical analysis on the passive film formed on Ni in pH 8.5 buffer solution,” Electrochim. Acta50(16–17), 3503–3508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron.10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. I.

H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Biesinger, B. P. Payne, L. W. M. Lau, A. Gerson, and R. S. C. Smart, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic chemical state quantification of mixed nickel metal, oxide and hydroxide systems,” Surf. Interface Anal.41(4), 324–332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

T. L. Chen, D. S. Ghosh, D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, and V. Pruneri, “Highly stable Al-doped ZnO transparent conductors using an oxidized ultrathin metal capping layer at its percolation thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, D. S. Ghosh, and V. Pruneri, “Nickel as an alternative semitransparent anode to indium tin oxide for polymer LED applications,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sachsman, S. M.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
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B. Sasi and K. G. Gopchandran, “Nanostructured mesoporous nickel oxide thin films,” Nanotechnology18(11), 115613 (2007).
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J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. W.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smart, R. S. C.

M. C. Biesinger, B. P. Payne, L. W. M. Lau, A. Gerson, and R. S. C. Smart, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic chemical state quantification of mixed nickel metal, oxide and hydroxide systems,” Surf. Interface Anal.41(4), 324–332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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. K. Subramanyam, S. Uthanna, and B. Srinivasulu Naidu, “Preparation and characterization of CdO films deposited by dc magnetron reactive sputtering,” Mater. Lett.35(3–4), 214–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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. K. Subramanyam, S. Uthanna, and B. Srinivasulu Naidu, “Preparation and characterization of CdO films deposited by dc magnetron reactive sputtering,” Mater. Lett.35(3–4), 214–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1137–1141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Metal oxides as a hole-injecting layer for an organic electroluminescent device,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.29(11), 2750–2753 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D.

T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Metal oxides as a hole-injecting layer for an organic electroluminescent device,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.29(11), 2750–2753 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Delgado, G.

D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films371(1–2), 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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. K. Subramanyam, S. Uthanna, and B. Srinivasulu Naidu, “Preparation and characterization of CdO films deposited by dc magnetron reactive sputtering,” Mater. Lett.35(3–4), 214–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vick, E.

T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-P.

J.-H. Jou, C.-P. Wang, M.-H. Wu, H.-W. Lin, H. C. Pan, and B.-H. Liu, “High-efficiency flexible white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(32), 6626–6629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Nishiura, Y. Wang, and Z. Hou, “π-conjugated aromatic enynes as a single-emitting component for white electroluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(17), 5592–5593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wangn, Z.

Z. Wangn, Y. Lou, S. Naka, and H. Okada, “High efficiency rubrene based inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices with a mixed single layer,” J. Lumin.130(7), 1198–1202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-H.

J.-H. Jou, C.-P. Wang, M.-H. Wu, H.-W. Lin, H. C. Pan, and B.-H. Liu, “High-efficiency flexible white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(32), 6626–6629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1137–1141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron.10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. S.

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, C.

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron.10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 026105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1137–1141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zúñiga-Romero, C. I.

D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films371(1–2), 105–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater.16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Chan, T. Y. Hsu, and F. C. Hong, “Enhanced hole injections in organic light-emitting devices by depositing nickel oxide on indium tin oxide anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(10), 1899–1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Chen, D. S. Ghosh, D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, and V. Pruneri, “Highly stable Al-doped ZnO transparent conductors using an oxidized ultrathin metal capping layer at its percolation thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electrochim. Acta

H. J. Jang, C. J. Park, and H. S. Kwon, “Photoelectrochemical analysis on the passive film formed on Ni in pH 8.5 buffer solution,” Electrochim. Acta50(16–17), 3503–3508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Device structures of fabricated BEWOLEDs and (b) corresponding energy band diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance spectra on Ni/Ag/Ni metal stack according to various thickness of (a) Ag and (b) Ni.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmittance and reflectance spectra of the 12-nm-thick Ni/Ag/Ni (3/6/3 nm) metal stack and 180-nm-thick ITO anode layer. (b) The optical transmission spectrum of the 3-nm-thick oxygen-plasma-treated NiO film. The inset shows (αhν)2 versus plot of the plasma treated NiO film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XPS spectra of Ni 2p measured from NiO film with different durations by etching time at ion-etched depth profiling of XPS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Luminance and current density as a function of applied voltage, and (b) luminous efficiency as a function of the luminance of BEWOLEDs with Ni/Ag/Ni metal stack and ITO anode layers formed by oxygen-plasma treatment for 60 sec. The inset shows quantum efficiency versus luminance characteristics of BEWOLEDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EL spectra of BEWOLEDs with Ni/Ag/Ni metal stack and ITO anode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The CIEx,y coordinates of BEWOLEDs with Ni/Ag/Ni metal stack and ITO anode at different viewing angles.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 EL Performance of Fabricated BEWOLEDs

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