Abstract

By doping blue, green and red dyes into a bipolar host system, a simple single-EML white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with efficiency and color-stability trade-off was achieved by solution process. The resulting WOLED shows high efficiency (i.e., 36.5 cd/A and 15.7% at 1141 cd/m2), reduced efficiency roll-off (i.e., critical current density jc is as high as 140 mA/cm2) and, especially, extremely stable electroluminescence spectra with a slight CIE coordinate variation of (0.404 ± 0.004, 0.436 ± 0.001). The superior performance of the WOLED is attributed to the effective suppression of exciton quenching and charge trapping in the bipolar EML.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. K. S. Yook, S. E. Jang, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Fabrication and Efficiency Improvement of Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Multilayer Structure Based on an Alcohol-Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Emitting Layer,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4479–4483 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, and F. S. Wang, “Manipulating Charges and Excitons within a Single-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-Performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. Yang, S. Q. Zhuang, X. F. Qiao, G. Y. Mu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a multiple quantum well structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Opt. Express20(22), 24411–24417 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. B. Zhao, L. P. Zhu, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “Improving color stability of blue/orange complementary white OLEDs by using single-host double-emissive layer structure: comprehensive experimental investigation into the device working mechanism,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1340–1348 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B75(12), 125328 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly Efficient Organic Blue-and White-Light-Emitting Devices Having a Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Structure for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Of,” Adv. Mater.20, 4189–4194 (2008).
  27. S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III)complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Tsuzuki and S. Tokito, “Highly Efficient and Low-Voltage Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using an Iridium Complex as the Host Material,” Adv. Mater.19(2), 276–280 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053311 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. Goushi, R. Kwong, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement and unconfinement by adjacent hole-transport layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(12), 7798–7805 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. S. C. Pingree, B. J. Scott, M. T. Russell, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Negative capacitance in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 073509 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Z. Siboni and H. Aziz, “Triplet-polaron quenching by charges on guest molecules in phosphorescent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(6), 063502 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S.-J. Su, H. Sasabe, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Bipolar Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.20(5), 1691–1693 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (7)

J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, Q. Fu, F. C. Zhao, Y. Hu, Y. L. Feng, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processable small molecules as efficient universal bipolar host for blue, green and red phosphorescent inverted OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(11), 5164–5170 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Doh, J. S. Park, W. S. Jeon, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Soluble processed low-voltage and high efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using small molecule host systems,” Org. Electron.13(4), 586–592 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fu, J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processed small molecules as mixed host for highly efficient blue and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6579–6586 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, S. Q. Zhuang, X. F. Qiao, G. Y. Mu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a multiple quantum well structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Opt. Express20(22), 24411–24417 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Zhao, L. P. Zhu, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “Improving color stability of blue/orange complementary white OLEDs by using single-host double-emissive layer structure: comprehensive experimental investigation into the device working mechanism,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1340–1348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Z. Siboni and H. Aziz, “Triplet-polaron quenching by charges on guest molecules in phosphorescent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(6), 063502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Gong, Q. Fu, Q. Wang, C. L. Yang, C. Zhong, J. G. Qin, and D. G. Ma, “Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level,” Adv. Mater.23(42), 4956–4959 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Q. Zhuang, Y. K. Liu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, D. G. Ma, and C. L. Yang, “Novel Deep Blue OLED Emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)-benzene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, T. Xiao, E. Hellerich, Y. Chen, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small Molecule Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(31), 3590–3596 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

K. S. Yook, S. E. Jang, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Fabrication and Efficiency Improvement of Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Multilayer Structure Based on an Alcohol-Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Emitting Layer,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4479–4483 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. D. Hou, L. Duan, J. Qiao, D. Q. Zhang, G. F. Dong, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Efficient solution-processed small-molecule single emitting layer electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1344–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Earmme, E. Ahmed, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Solution-Processed Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a New Electron Transport Material,” Adv. Mater.22(42), 4744–4748 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

J.-D. You, S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, F.-W. Yen, I.-F. Lin, and S.-F. Horng, “All-solution-processed blue small molecular organic light-emitting diodes with multilayer device structure,” Org. Electron.10(8), 1610–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, and F. S. Wang, “Manipulating Charges and Excitons within a Single-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-Performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Wu, G. J. Zhou, J. H. Zou, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Efficient Polymer White-Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater.21(41), 4181–4184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly Efficient Organic Blue-and White-Light-Emitting Devices Having a Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Structure for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Of,” Adv. Mater.20, 4189–4194 (2008).

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, H. Sasabe, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Bipolar Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.20(5), 1691–1693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T. Tsuzuki and S. Tokito, “Highly Efficient and Low-Voltage Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using an Iridium Complex as the Host Material,” Adv. Mater.19(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B75(12), 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, “Lighting: White phosphorescent LEDs offer efficient answer,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 33–34 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III)complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. C. Pingree, B. J. Scott, M. T. Russell, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Negative capacitance in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 073509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. Goushi, R. Kwong, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement and unconfinement by adjacent hole-transport layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(12), 7798–7805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III)complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Goushi, R. Kwong, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement and unconfinement by adjacent hole-transport layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(12), 7798–7805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, E.

T. Earmme, E. Ahmed, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Solution-Processed Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a New Electron Transport Material,” Adv. Mater.22(42), 4744–4748 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aziz, H.

H. Z. Siboni and H. Aziz, “Triplet-polaron quenching by charges on guest molecules in phosphorescent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(6), 063502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birnstock, J.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradely, D. D. C.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III)complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. J.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III)complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Goushi, R. Kwong, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement and unconfinement by adjacent hole-transport layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(12), 7798–7805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C.

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, T. Xiao, E. Hellerich, Y. Chen, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small Molecule Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(31), 3590–3596 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

H. B. Wu, G. J. Zhou, J. H. Zou, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Efficient Polymer White-Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater.21(41), 4181–4184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. S.

J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, Q. Fu, F. C. Zhao, Y. Hu, Y. L. Feng, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processable small molecules as efficient universal bipolar host for blue, green and red phosphorescent inverted OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(11), 5164–5170 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processed small molecules as mixed host for highly efficient blue and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6579–6586 (2012).
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X. Yang, S. Q. Zhuang, X. F. Qiao, G. Y. Mu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a multiple quantum well structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Opt. Express20(22), 24411–24417 (2012).
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Y. B. Zhao, L. P. Zhu, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “Improving color stability of blue/orange complementary white OLEDs by using single-host double-emissive layer structure: comprehensive experimental investigation into the device working mechanism,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1340–1348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Q. Zhuang, Y. K. Liu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, D. G. Ma, and C. L. Yang, “Novel Deep Blue OLED Emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)-benzene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
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M. Cai, T. Xiao, E. Hellerich, Y. Chen, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small Molecule Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(31), 3590–3596 (2011).
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Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, and F. S. Wang, “Manipulating Charges and Excitons within a Single-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-Performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
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Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
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Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103503 (2009).
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C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
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S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
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T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

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Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
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Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103503 (2009).
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Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, and F. S. Wang, “Manipulating Charges and Excitons within a Single-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-Performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
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Y. J. Doh, J. S. Park, W. S. Jeon, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Soluble processed low-voltage and high efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using small molecule host systems,” Org. Electron.13(4), 586–592 (2012).
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L. D. Hou, L. Duan, J. Qiao, D. Q. Zhang, G. F. Dong, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Efficient solution-processed small-molecule single emitting layer electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1344–1350 (2010).
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J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, Q. Fu, F. C. Zhao, Y. Hu, Y. L. Feng, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processable small molecules as efficient universal bipolar host for blue, green and red phosphorescent inverted OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(11), 5164–5170 (2012).
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J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
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Fu, Q.

J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, Q. Fu, F. C. Zhao, Y. Hu, Y. L. Feng, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processable small molecules as efficient universal bipolar host for blue, green and red phosphorescent inverted OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(11), 5164–5170 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processed small molecules as mixed host for highly efficient blue and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6579–6586 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Gong, Q. Fu, Q. Wang, C. L. Yang, C. Zhong, J. G. Qin, and D. G. Ma, “Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level,” Adv. Mater.23(42), 4956–4959 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Q. Zhuang, Y. K. Liu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, D. G. Ma, and C. L. Yang, “Novel Deep Blue OLED Emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)-benzene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
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Gong, S. L.

S. L. Gong, Q. Fu, Q. Wang, C. L. Yang, C. Zhong, J. G. Qin, and D. G. Ma, “Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level,” Adv. Mater.23(42), 4956–4959 (2011).
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S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly Efficient Organic Blue-and White-Light-Emitting Devices Having a Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Structure for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Of,” Adv. Mater.20, 4189–4194 (2008).

Goushi, K.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III)complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071104 (2005).
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K. Goushi, R. Kwong, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement and unconfinement by adjacent hole-transport layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(12), 7798–7805 (2004).
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G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3911 (2004).
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Hellerich, E.

M. Cai, T. Xiao, E. Hellerich, Y. Chen, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small Molecule Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(31), 3590–3596 (2011).
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Hersam, M. C.

L. S. C. Pingree, B. J. Scott, M. T. Russell, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Negative capacitance in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 073509 (2005).
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H. B. Wu, G. J. Zhou, J. H. Zou, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Efficient Polymer White-Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater.21(41), 4181–4184 (2009).
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Ho, C.-L.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
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Hofmann, M.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
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Horng, S.-F.

J.-D. You, S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, F.-W. Yen, I.-F. Lin, and S.-F. Horng, “All-solution-processed blue small molecular organic light-emitting diodes with multilayer device structure,” Org. Electron.10(8), 1610–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L. D.

L. D. Hou, L. Duan, J. Qiao, D. Q. Zhang, G. F. Dong, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Efficient solution-processed small-molecule single emitting layer electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1344–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, Q. Fu, F. C. Zhao, Y. Hu, Y. L. Feng, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processable small molecules as efficient universal bipolar host for blue, green and red phosphorescent inverted OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(11), 5164–5170 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Q. Zhuang, Y. K. Liu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, D. G. Ma, and C. L. Yang, “Novel Deep Blue OLED Emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)-benzene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. E.

K. S. Yook, S. E. Jang, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Fabrication and Efficiency Improvement of Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Multilayer Structure Based on an Alcohol-Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Emitting Layer,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4479–4483 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenekhe, S. A.

T. Earmme, E. Ahmed, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Solution-Processed Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a New Electron Transport Material,” Adv. Mater.22(42), 4744–4748 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, S. O.

K. S. Yook, S. E. Jang, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Fabrication and Efficiency Improvement of Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Multilayer Structure Based on an Alcohol-Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Emitting Layer,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4479–4483 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, W. S.

Y. J. Doh, J. S. Park, W. S. Jeon, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Soluble processed low-voltage and high efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using small molecule host systems,” Org. Electron.13(4), 586–592 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jing, X. B.

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III)complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
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S.-J. Su, H. Sasabe, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Bipolar Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.20(5), 1691–1693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly Efficient Organic Blue-and White-Light-Emitting Devices Having a Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Structure for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Of,” Adv. Mater.20, 4189–4194 (2008).

Kim, M.-S.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

Kim, Y.-R.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

Kwon, J. H.

Y. J. Doh, J. S. Park, W. S. Jeon, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Soluble processed low-voltage and high efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using small molecule host systems,” Org. Electron.13(4), 586–592 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

Kwong, R.

K. Goushi, R. Kwong, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement and unconfinement by adjacent hole-transport layers,” J. Appl. Phys.95(12), 7798–7805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C.-S.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

K. S. Yook, S. E. Jang, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Fabrication and Efficiency Improvement of Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Multilayer Structure Based on an Alcohol-Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Emitting Layer,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4479–4483 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T.-W.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

Leo, K.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B75(12), 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, I.-F.

J.-D. You, S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, F.-W. Yen, I.-F. Lin, and S.-F. Horng, “All-solution-processed blue small molecular organic light-emitting diodes with multilayer device structure,” Org. Electron.10(8), 1610–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. H.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. K.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Q. Zhuang, Y. K. Liu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, D. G. Ma, and C. L. Yang, “Novel Deep Blue OLED Emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)-benzene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

Ma, D. G.

J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, Q. Fu, F. C. Zhao, Y. Hu, Y. L. Feng, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processable small molecules as efficient universal bipolar host for blue, green and red phosphorescent inverted OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(11), 5164–5170 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processed small molecules as mixed host for highly efficient blue and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6579–6586 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Zhao, L. P. Zhu, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “Improving color stability of blue/orange complementary white OLEDs by using single-host double-emissive layer structure: comprehensive experimental investigation into the device working mechanism,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1340–1348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, S. Q. Zhuang, X. F. Qiao, G. Y. Mu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a multiple quantum well structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Opt. Express20(22), 24411–24417 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Q. Zhuang, Y. K. Liu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, D. G. Ma, and C. L. Yang, “Novel Deep Blue OLED Emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)-benzene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Gong, Q. Fu, Q. Wang, C. L. Yang, C. Zhong, J. G. Qin, and D. G. Ma, “Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level,” Adv. Mater.23(42), 4956–4959 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, and F. S. Wang, “Manipulating Charges and Excitons within a Single-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-Performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradely, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

L. S. C. Pingree, B. J. Scott, M. T. Russell, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Negative capacitance in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 073509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.-F.

J.-D. You, S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, F.-W. Yen, I.-F. Lin, and S.-F. Horng, “All-solution-processed blue small molecular organic light-emitting diodes with multilayer device structure,” Org. Electron.10(8), 1610–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mu, G. Y.

Nakayama, K.

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noh, T.

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O’Brien, D. F.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
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Y. J. Doh, J. S. Park, W. S. Jeon, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Soluble processed low-voltage and high efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using small molecule host systems,” Org. Electron.13(4), 586–592 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-J.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

Peng, J. B.

H. B. Wu, G. J. Zhou, J. H. Zou, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Efficient Polymer White-Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater.21(41), 4181–4184 (2009).
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G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3911 (2004).
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L. S. C. Pingree, B. J. Scott, M. T. Russell, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Negative capacitance in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 073509 (2005).
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Y. J. Doh, J. S. Park, W. S. Jeon, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Soluble processed low-voltage and high efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using small molecule host systems,” Org. Electron.13(4), 586–592 (2012).
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C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3911 (2004).
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L. D. Hou, L. Duan, J. Qiao, D. Q. Zhang, G. F. Dong, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Efficient solution-processed small-molecule single emitting layer electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1344–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, X. F.

Qin, J. G.

S. L. Gong, Q. Fu, Q. Wang, C. L. Yang, C. Zhong, J. G. Qin, and D. G. Ma, “Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level,” Adv. Mater.23(42), 4956–4959 (2011).
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L. D. Hou, L. Duan, J. Qiao, D. Q. Zhang, G. F. Dong, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Efficient solution-processed small-molecule single emitting layer electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1344–1350 (2010).
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R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
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G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B75(12), 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. C. Pingree, B. J. Scott, M. T. Russell, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Negative capacitance in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 073509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, H. Sasabe, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Bipolar Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.20(5), 1691–1693 (2008).
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S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly Efficient Organic Blue-and White-Light-Emitting Devices Having a Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Structure for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Of,” Adv. Mater.20, 4189–4194 (2008).

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III)complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 071104 (2005).
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R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. J.

L. S. C. Pingree, B. J. Scott, M. T. Russell, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Negative capacitance in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(7), 073509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C. S.

J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, Q. Fu, F. C. Zhao, Y. Hu, Y. L. Feng, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processable small molecules as efficient universal bipolar host for blue, green and red phosphorescent inverted OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(11), 5164–5170 (2012).
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Q. Fu, J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processed small molecules as mixed host for highly efficient blue and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6579–6586 (2012).
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T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

Shin, H.-W.

T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, H.-W. Shin, O. Kwon, J.-J. Park, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and Y.-R. Kim, “Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts,” Adv. Mater.19, 1625–1630 (2009).

Shinar, J.

M. Cai, T. Xiao, E. Hellerich, Y. Chen, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small Molecule Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(31), 3590–3596 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinar, R.

M. Cai, T. Xiao, E. Hellerich, Y. Chen, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small Molecule Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(31), 3590–3596 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, S.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
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C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron.12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, H. Sasabe, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Bipolar Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.20(5), 1691–1693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly Efficient Organic Blue-and White-Light-Emitting Devices Having a Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Structure for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Of,” Adv. Mater.20, 4189–4194 (2008).

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
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S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, H. Sasabe, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Bipolar Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.20(5), 1691–1693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, G. P.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
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C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913 (1987).
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M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
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Thomschke, M.

Tokito, S.

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J.-D. You, S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, F.-W. Yen, I.-F. Lin, and S.-F. Horng, “All-solution-processed blue small molecular organic light-emitting diodes with multilayer device structure,” Org. Electron.10(8), 1610–1614 (2009).
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C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913 (1987).
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R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.104(1), 014510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in high-efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B75(12), 125328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. S.

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, and F. S. Wang, “Manipulating Charges and Excitons within a Single-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-Performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

X. Yang, S. Q. Zhuang, X. F. Qiao, G. Y. Mu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a multiple quantum well structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Opt. Express20(22), 24411–24417 (2012).
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H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Q. Zhuang, Y. K. Liu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, D. G. Ma, and C. L. Yang, “Novel Deep Blue OLED Emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)-benzene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. D.

L. D. Hou, L. Duan, J. Qiao, D. Q. Zhang, G. F. Dong, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Efficient solution-processed small-molecule single emitting layer electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1344–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. X.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, and F. S. Wang, “Manipulating Charges and Excitons within a Single-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-Performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

S. L. Gong, Q. Fu, Q. Wang, C. L. Yang, C. Zhong, J. G. Qin, and D. G. Ma, “Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level,” Adv. Mater.23(42), 4956–4959 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, and F. S. Wang, “Manipulating Charges and Excitons within a Single-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-Performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, L. X. Wang, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Harvesting Excitons Via Two Parallel Channels for Efficient White Organic LEDs with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency: Fabrication and Emission-Mechanism Analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. B. Wu, G. J. Zhou, J. H. Zou, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Efficient Polymer White-Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater.21(41), 4181–4184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.-Y.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H. B.

H. B. Wu, G. J. Zhou, J. H. Zou, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Efficient Polymer White-Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater.21(41), 4181–4184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, T.

M. Cai, T. Xiao, E. Hellerich, Y. Chen, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small Molecule Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(31), 3590–3596 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Z. Y.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. L.

S. L. Gong, Q. Fu, Q. Wang, C. L. Yang, C. Zhong, J. G. Qin, and D. G. Ma, “Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level,” Adv. Mater.23(42), 4956–4959 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Q. Zhuang, Y. K. Liu, L. Wang, J. S. Chen, D. G. Ma, and C. L. Yang, “Novel Deep Blue OLED Emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)-benzene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

H. B. Wu, G. J. Zhou, J. H. Zou, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Efficient Polymer White-Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater.21(41), 4181–4184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Yao, B.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, F.-W.

J.-D. You, S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, F.-W. Yen, I.-F. Lin, and S.-F. Horng, “All-solution-processed blue small molecular organic light-emitting diodes with multilayer device structure,” Org. Electron.10(8), 1610–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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K. S. Yook, S. E. Jang, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Fabrication and Efficiency Improvement of Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Multilayer Structure Based on an Alcohol-Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Emitting Layer,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4479–4483 (2010).
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J.-D. You, S.-R. Tseng, H.-F. Meng, F.-W. Yen, I.-F. Lin, and S.-F. Horng, “All-solution-processed blue small molecular organic light-emitting diodes with multilayer device structure,” Org. Electron.10(8), 1610–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. H.

B. H. Zhang, G. P. Tan, C.-S. Lam, B. Yao, C.-L. Ho, L. H. Liu, Z. Y. Xie, W.-Y. Wong, J. Q. Ding, and L. X. Wang, “High-Efficiency Single Emissive Layer White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Dendritic Host and New Orange-Emitting Iridium Complex,” Adv. Mater.24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D. Q.

L. D. Hou, L. Duan, J. Qiao, D. Q. Zhang, G. F. Dong, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Efficient solution-processed small-molecule single emitting layer electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1344–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. C.

J. S. Chen, C. S. Shi, Q. Fu, F. C. Zhao, Y. Hu, Y. L. Feng, and D. G. Ma, “Solution-processable small molecules as efficient universal bipolar host for blue, green and red phosphorescent inverted OLEDs,” J. Mater. Chem.22(11), 5164–5170 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. B.

Y. B. Zhao, L. P. Zhu, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “Improving color stability of blue/orange complementary white OLEDs by using single-host double-emissive layer structure: comprehensive experimental investigation into the device working mechanism,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1340–1348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, C.

S. L. Gong, Q. Fu, Q. Wang, C. L. Yang, C. Zhong, J. G. Qin, and D. G. Ma, “Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level,” Adv. Mater.23(42), 4956–4959 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, G. J.

H. B. Wu, G. J. Zhou, J. H. Zou, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. B. Peng, and Y. Cao, “Efficient Polymer White-Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater.21(41), 4181–4184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L. P.

Y. B. Zhao, L. P. Zhu, J. S. Chen, and D. G. Ma, “Improving color stability of blue/orange complementary white OLEDs by using single-host double-emissive layer structure: comprehensive experimental investigation into the device working mechanism,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1340–1348 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy diagrams (a) and molecular structures (b) used in solution-processed OLEDs [2630].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Device characteristics in the solution-processed single-EML WOLED: a) current density-brightness-voltage, b) power efficiency-current efficiency-brightness, c) external quantum efficiency-current density and d) electroluminescence (EL) spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Device characteristics in the solution-processed single-EML WOLED based on unipolar host: a) external quantum efficiency-current density and b) EL spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Diagrams of EL processes in unipolar host and bipolar host, b) J-V characteristics of device with different Ir(ppy)2(acac) concentrations, c) J-V characteristics of device with different Ir(MDQ)2(acac) concentrations. B, G and R are corresponding to blue dopant FIrpic, green dopant Ir(ppy)2(acac) and red dopant Ir(MDQ)2(acac), respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of device characteristics of the solution-processed blue OLEDs with different concentrations of TAPC.

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