Abstract

Optical properties of two identical coupled disks forming a “hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule” are investigated. Each disk is a metal-dielectric structure supporting hybrid plasmonic-photonic whispering-gallery (WG) modes. The WG modes of a molecule split into two groups of nearly-degenerate modes, i.e., bonding and anti-bonding modes. The oscillation of quality factor (Q) with the inter-disk gap d and significant enhancement at certain inter-disk gaps can be observed. An enhanced Q factor of 1821 for a hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule composed of two 1.2 μm-diameter disks, compared with that for a single disk, is achieved. The corresponding Purcell factor is 191, making the hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule an optimal choice for subwavelength-scale device miniaturization and light-matter interactions. Moreover, the far-field emission pattern of the hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule exhibits an enhanced directional light output by tuning the azimuthal mode number for both bonding and anti-bonding modes.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

Y. Hong, M. Pourmand, S. V. Boriskina, and B. M. Reinhard, “Enhanced light focusing in self-assembled optoplasmonic clusters with subwavelength dimensions,” Adv. Mater. 25(1), 115–119 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (5)

S. V. Boriskina, M. Povinelli, V. N. Astratov, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Collective phenomena in photonic, plasmonic and hybrid structures,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22024–22028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina and B. M. Reinhard, “Adaptive on-chip control of nano-optical fields with optoplasmonic vortex nanogates,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22305–22315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Santiago-Cordoba, S. V. Boriskina, F. Vollmer, and M. C. Demirel, “Nanoparticle-based protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina and B. M. Reinhard, “Spectrally and spatially configurable superlenses for optoplasmonic nanocircuits,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3147–3151 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

T. W. Lu and P. T. Lee, “Ultra-high sensitivity optical stress sensor based on double-layered photonic crystal microcavity,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1518–1526 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457(7228), 455–458 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandao, and M. B. Plenio, “Quantum many-body phenomena in coupled cavity arrays,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(6), 527–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Shang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Single-frequency coupled asymmetric microcavity laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1150–1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Wavelength and loss splitting in directly coupled photonic-crystal defect microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16255–16264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Unidirectional single-frequency lasing from a ring-spiral coupled microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11934–11941 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components,” Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520X, 64520X-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Optical coupling of whispering-gallery modes of two identical microdisks and its effect on photonic molecule lasing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 78–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 71–77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, “Theoretical prediction of a dramatic Q-factor enhancement and degeneracy removal of whispering gallery modes in symmetrical photonic molecules,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 338–340 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Threshold reduction in a cyclic photonic molecule laser composed of identical microdisks with whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 921–923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, “Spectrally engineered photonic molecules as optical sensors with enhanced sensitivity: a proposal and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(8), 1565–1573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Q factor and emission pattern control of the WG modes in notched microdisk resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 52–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1175–1182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “High-order tunable filters based on a chain of coupled crystalline whispering gallery-mode resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 136–138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, “Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5508–5510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Effect of a layered environment on the complex natural frequencies of two-dimensional WGM dielectric-ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1563–1572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, M. Bayindir, I. Bulu, and E. Cubukcu, “Investigation of localized coupled-cavity modes in two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 837–843 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. D. Barnes, S. M. Mahurin, A. Mehta, B. G. Sumpter, and D. W. Noid, “Three-dimensional photonic “molecules” from sequentially attached polymer-blend microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 015508 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Oda, N. Takato, and H. Toba, “A wide-FSR waveguide double-ring resonator for optical FDM transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(6), 728–736 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashili, S. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, “Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5508–5510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

S. V. Boriskina, M. Povinelli, V. N. Astratov, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Collective phenomena in photonic, plasmonic and hybrid structures,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22024–22028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, “Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5508–5510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atlasov, K. A.

Baba, T.

S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 71–77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, M. D.

M. D. Barnes, S. M. Mahurin, A. Mehta, B. G. Sumpter, and D. W. Noid, “Three-dimensional photonic “molecules” from sequentially attached polymer-blend microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 015508 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayer, M.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

E. Ozbay, M. Bayindir, I. Bulu, and E. Cubukcu, “Investigation of localized coupled-cavity modes in two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 837–843 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components,” Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520X, 64520X-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1175–1182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Q factor and emission pattern control of the WG modes in notched microdisk resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 52–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Optical coupling of whispering-gallery modes of two identical microdisks and its effect on photonic molecule lasing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 78–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Threshold reduction in a cyclic photonic molecule laser composed of identical microdisks with whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 921–923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Effect of a layered environment on the complex natural frequencies of two-dimensional WGM dielectric-ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1563–1572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Binsma, H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boland, J. J.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S. V.

Y. Hong, M. Pourmand, S. V. Boriskina, and B. M. Reinhard, “Enhanced light focusing in self-assembled optoplasmonic clusters with subwavelength dimensions,” Adv. Mater. 25(1), 115–119 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Santiago-Cordoba, S. V. Boriskina, F. Vollmer, and M. C. Demirel, “Nanoparticle-based protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina and B. M. Reinhard, “Spectrally and spatially configurable superlenses for optoplasmonic nanocircuits,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3147–3151 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina and B. M. Reinhard, “Adaptive on-chip control of nano-optical fields with optoplasmonic vortex nanogates,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22305–22315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, M. Povinelli, V. N. Astratov, A. V. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Collective phenomena in photonic, plasmonic and hybrid structures,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22024–22028 (2011).
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S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components,” Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520X, 64520X-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Q factor and emission pattern control of the WG modes in notched microdisk resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 52–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1175–1182 (2006).
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S. V. Boriskina, “Theoretical prediction of a dramatic Q-factor enhancement and degeneracy removal of whispering gallery modes in symmetrical photonic molecules,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 338–340 (2006).
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S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Effect of a layered environment on the complex natural frequencies of two-dimensional WGM dielectric-ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1563–1572 (2002).
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Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
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M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandao, and M. B. Plenio, “Quantum many-body phenomena in coupled cavity arrays,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(6), 527–556 (2008).
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E. Ozbay, M. Bayindir, I. Bulu, and E. Cubukcu, “Investigation of localized coupled-cavity modes in two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 837–843 (2002).
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Chao, S. S.

Chen, J. H.

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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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Connolly, T. M.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
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Cubukcu, E.

E. Ozbay, M. Bayindir, I. Bulu, and E. Cubukcu, “Investigation of localized coupled-cavity modes in two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 837–843 (2002).
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M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
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M. A. Santiago-Cordoba, S. V. Boriskina, F. Vollmer, and M. C. Demirel, “Nanoparticle-based protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073701 (2011).
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M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
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Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
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M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
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M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
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M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
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Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
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M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
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M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
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M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandao, and M. B. Plenio, “Quantum many-body phenomena in coupled cavity arrays,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(6), 527–556 (2008).
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M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
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J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
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Y. Hong, M. Pourmand, S. V. Boriskina, and B. M. Reinhard, “Enhanced light focusing in self-assembled optoplasmonic clusters with subwavelength dimensions,” Adv. Mater. 25(1), 115–119 (2013).
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J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
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A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “High-order tunable filters based on a chain of coupled crystalline whispering gallery-mode resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 136–138 (2005).
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S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 71–77 (2006).
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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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Kapon, E.

Karlsson, K. F.

Khoe, G. D.

M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
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J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013804 (2006).
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M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
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M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
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M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
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Lalanne, P.

Lee, P. T.

Lee, S. Y.

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013804 (2006).
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M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
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J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 320–322 (2000).
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X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Unidirectional single-frequency lasing from a ring-spiral coupled microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081105 (2008).
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A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “High-order tunable filters based on a chain of coupled crystalline whispering gallery-mode resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 136–138 (2005).
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Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “High-order tunable filters based on a chain of coupled crystalline whispering gallery-mode resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 136–138 (2005).
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M. D. Barnes, S. M. Mahurin, A. Mehta, B. G. Sumpter, and D. W. Noid, “Three-dimensional photonic “molecules” from sequentially attached polymer-blend microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 015508 (2001).
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B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457(7228), 455–458 (2009).
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S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 71–77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakaoka, T.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
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M. D. Barnes, S. M. Mahurin, A. Mehta, B. G. Sumpter, and D. W. Noid, “Three-dimensional photonic “molecules” from sequentially attached polymer-blend microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 015508 (2001).
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E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Optical coupling of whispering-gallery modes of two identical microdisks and its effect on photonic molecule lasing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 78–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Q factor and emission pattern control of the WG modes in notched microdisk resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 52–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1175–1182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Threshold reduction in a cyclic photonic molecule laser composed of identical microdisks with whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 921–923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Effect of a layered environment on the complex natural frequencies of two-dimensional WGM dielectric-ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1563–1572 (2002).
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M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostby, E.

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457(7228), 455–458 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. Ozbay, M. Bayindir, I. Bulu, and E. Cubukcu, “Investigation of localized coupled-cavity modes in two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 837–843 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Pile, D.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandao, and M. B. Plenio, “Quantum many-body phenomena in coupled cavity arrays,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(6), 527–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Polman, A.

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pourmand, M.

Y. Hong, M. Pourmand, S. V. Boriskina, and B. M. Reinhard, “Enhanced light focusing in self-assembled optoplasmonic clusters with subwavelength dimensions,” Adv. Mater. 25(1), 115–119 (2013).
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Qiu, M.

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Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, B. M.

Y. Hong, M. Pourmand, S. V. Boriskina, and B. M. Reinhard, “Enhanced light focusing in self-assembled optoplasmonic clusters with subwavelength dimensions,” Adv. Mater. 25(1), 115–119 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina and B. M. Reinhard, “Spectrally and spatially configurable superlenses for optoplasmonic nanocircuits,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3147–3151 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina and B. M. Reinhard, “Adaptive on-chip control of nano-optical fields with optoplasmonic vortex nanogates,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22305–22315 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reithmaier, J. P.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, “Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Rudra, A.

Ryu, J. W.

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santiago-Cordoba, M. A.

M. A. Santiago-Cordoba, S. V. Boriskina, F. Vollmer, and M. C. Demirel, “Nanoparticle-based protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sauvan, C.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “High-order tunable filters based on a chain of coupled crystalline whispering gallery-mode resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 136–138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Sewell, P.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components,” Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520X, 64520X-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Q factor and emission pattern control of the WG modes in notched microdisk resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 52–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Optical coupling of whispering-gallery modes of two identical microdisks and its effect on photonic molecule lasing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 78–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Threshold reduction in a cyclic photonic molecule laser composed of identical microdisks with whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 921–923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Effect of a layered environment on the complex natural frequencies of two-dimensional WGM dielectric-ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1563–1572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P. D.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, “Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1175–1182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shang, L.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457(7228), 455–458 (2009).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the hybrid photonic- plasmonic molecule consisting of two disks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode splitting in a hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule with an inter-disk gap d = 120 nm. (a) The profiles of the electric field Ez in the x-y plane of bonding (OE, EE) and anti-bonding (OO, EO) modes for m = 8. (b) The profile of the electric field Ez in the x-z plane for EE mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The resonant wavelengths of anti-bonding (OO, EO) and bonding modes(OE, EE) as functions of the distance between the two atoms for the azimuthal-order m = 8, (b) Wavelength differences between bonding modes and anti-bonding modes versus the azimuthal mode number when d = 120 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The Q factor as functions of the distance between disks for bonding modes (OE, EE) and anti-bonding modes (OO, EO). The azimuthal-order m is 8. For comparison, the Q factor of an isolated disk (m = 8) is also plotted (dash dot line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The effective mode volume Veff against the azimuthal mode number for the bonding modes (OE, EE) and the anti-bonding modes (OO, EO) at d = 120 nm and 540 nm. For comparison, the mode volume of a single disk is also plotted (triangle).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The far-field emission patterns of H-plane (a) for the individual disk of WG modes of m = 7, (b), (d) the bonding modes (OE and EE) and (c), (e) the anti-bonding modes (OO and EO) for hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The far-field emission patterns of H-plane (a) for the individual disk of WG modes of m = 8, (b), (d) the bonding modes (OE and EE) and (c), (e) the anti-bonding modes (OO and EO) for hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The far-field emission patterns of E-plane (a) for the individual disk of WG modes of m = 7, (b), (d) the bonding modes (OE and EE) and (c), (e) the anti-bonding modes (OO and EO) for hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The far-field emission patterns of E-plane (a) for the individual disk of WG modes of m = 8, (b), (d) the bonding modes (OE and EE) and (c), (e) the anti-bonding modes (OO and EO) for hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F P = 3 4 π 2 ( λ 0 n ) 3 ( Q V eff )
V eff = ε(x,y,z) | E(x,y,z) | 2 dxdydz max{ε(x,y,z) | E(x,y,z) | 2 } .

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