Abstract

This investigation reports observations of optical bistability in a silicon nitride (SiN) micro-ring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal cladding. The refractive index of the cladding can be changed by switching the liquid crystal between nematic (NLC) and photo-induced isotropic (PHI) states by. Both the NLC and the PHI states can be maintained for many hours, and can be rapidly switched from one state to the other by photo-induced isomerization using 532nm and 408nm addressing light, respectively. The proposed device exhibits optical bistable switching of the resonance wavelength without sustained use of a power source. It has a 1.9 nm maximum spectral shift with a Q-factor of over 10000. The hybrid SiN- LC micro-ring resonator possesses easy switching, long memory, and low power consumption. It therefore has the potential to be used in signal processing elements and switching elements in optically integrated circuits.

© 2013 OSA

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2012

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yu, J. B. Zhang, T. Bourouina, and A. Q. Liu, “Optical-force-induced bistability in nanomachined ring resonator systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 093108 (2012).

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lambert, W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a polymerizable liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1475–1477 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-T. Wang, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Optically controllable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2370–2372 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, S.-C. Yang, T.-J. Chen, and B.-Y. Chen, “Wide tuning of SiN microring resonators by auto-realigning nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express20(14), 15853–15858 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2009

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, “A tunable broadband photonic RF phase shifter based on a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 60–62 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2004

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 113 901 (2004).

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, “Optical bistability on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2387–2389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, “Optical bistability on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2387–2389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

Banwell, T.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolozzi, I.

Beeckman, J.

Bienstman, P.

Bourouina, T.

Y. F. Yu, J. B. Zhang, T. Bourouina, and A. Q. Liu, “Optical-force-induced bistability in nanomachined ring resonator systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 093108 (2012).

Bowers, J. E.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater.19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

Chang, Q.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, “A tunable broadband photonic RF phase shifter based on a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 60–62 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.-Y.

Chen, T.-J.

Chu, C.-H.

Claes, T.

Dalton, L.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Cort, W.

De Vos, K.

Dong, P.

Fan, L.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Goldhar, J.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

Gunn, G.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-T.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

Hrozhyk, U.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 113 901 (2004).

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater.19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

Jau, H.-C.

Kim, Y.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

Lambert, S.

Lawson, R.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

Lee, D. C.

Li, J.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

Li, Q.

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, “A tunable broadband photonic RF phase shifter based on a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 60–62 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

Lin, C.-Y.

Lin, T.-H.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A. Q.

Y. F. Yu, J. B. Zhang, T. Bourouina, and A. Q. Liu, “Optical-force-induced bistability in nanomachined ring resonator systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 093108 (2012).

Liu, B.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

Maune, B.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menendez, R.

Neyts, K.

Niu, B.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Qiu, M.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, “A tunable broadband photonic RF phase shifter based on a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 60–62 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

Scherer, A.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 113 901 (2004).

Serak, S. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater.19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shakouri, A.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, “A tunable broadband photonic RF phase shifter based on a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 60–62 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 113 901 (2004).

Tabiryan, N. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater.19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

Urbas, A.

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varghese, L. T.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.-T.

Wang, J.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.-J.

Weiner, A. M.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodward, T. K.

Xu, Q.

Xuan, Y.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.-C.

Ye, T.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, “A tunable broadband photonic RF phase shifter based on a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 60–62 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. F.

Y. F. Yu, J. B. Zhang, T. Bourouina, and A. Q. Liu, “Optical-force-induced bistability in nanomachined ring resonator systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 093108 (2012).

Zhang, J. B.

Y. F. Yu, J. B. Zhang, T. Bourouina, and A. Q. Liu, “Optical-force-induced bistability in nanomachined ring resonator systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 093108 (2012).

Zhang, Z.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, “A tunable broadband photonic RF phase shifter based on a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 60–62 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater.19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Yu, J. B. Zhang, T. Bourouina, and A. Q. Liu, “Optical-force-induced bistability in nanomachined ring resonator systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 093108 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, “A tunable broadband photonic RF phase shifter based on a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 60–62 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(1), 36–38 (2003).

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 113 901 (2004).

Science

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross-section and (b) top view of the proposed resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principles of two bistable switching operation of the proposed resonator at the NLC and PHI states.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of proposed resonator with a DDLC cladding, observed under R-POM (a) without any polarizer and with crossed polarizers at two stable states: (b) NLC state, (c) PHI state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission spectral of proposed resonator at NLC and PHI states, (b) detailed transmission spectra between 1548 and 1552nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variations of resonance wavelength as a function of relaxation time for both NLC and PHI states.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the resonant wavelength on the switching cycle. Observed resonant peaks between 1548 and 1551 nm

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