Abstract

Efficient generation of a broad-band mid-infrared supercontinuum spectrum is reported in an arsenic trisulphide waveguide embedded in silica. A chalcogenide “nano-spike”, designed to transform the incident light adiabatically into the fundamental mode of a 2-mm-long uniform section 1 µm in diameter, is used to achieve high launch efficiencies. The nano-spike is fully encapsulated in a fused silica cladding, protecting it from the environment. Nano-spikes provide a convenient means of launching light into sub-wavelength scale waveguides. Ultrashort (65 fs, repetition rate 100 MHz) pulses at wavelength 2 µm, delivered from a Tm-doped fiber laser, are launched with an efficiency ~12% into the sub-wavelength chalcogenide waveguide. Soliton fission and dispersive wave generation along the uniform section result in spectral broadening out to almost 4 µm for launched energies of only 18 pJ. The spectrum generated will have immediate uses in metrology and infrared spectroscopy.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
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[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

A. Tuniz, G. Brawley, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Two-photon absorption effects on Raman gain in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide glass fiber,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18524–18534 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 608–610 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

2000 (2)

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty 40, 55–59 (1996).

1989 (1)

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

Aggarwal, I. D.

Almeida, V. R.

Artiglia, M.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[Crossref]

Barthelemy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[Crossref]

Benedick, A. J.

Biancalana, F.

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023808 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12(2), 299–309 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Brawley, G.

Breuer, E.

Brilland, L.

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Calvez, L.

Canat, G.

Chang, G. Q.

Chapman, B. H.

Chartier, T.

Chen, J. S. Y.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry 16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chen, L. J.

Chen, Z.

Chudoba, C.

Churbanov, M. F.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coppa, G.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[Crossref]

Couderc, V.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[Crossref]

Coulombier, Q.

Cramer, C.

Cumberland, B. A.

Da, N.

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, “High index-contrast all-solid photonic crystal fibers by pressure-assisted melt infiltration of silica matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(35-36), 1829–1836 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dekker, S.

Dekker, S. A.

Desevedavy, F.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Di Vita, P.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Duhant, M.

Duverger-Arfuso, C.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

El Amraoui, M.

Elder, A. D.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Euser, T. G.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry 16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Farrer, N. J.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry 16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Fendel, P.

Foster, M. A.

Frank, J. H.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Furesz, G.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gapontsev, V.

Gattass, R.

R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ghanta, R. K.

Glenday, A. G.

Granzow, N.

Gurovic, J.

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty 40, 55–59 (1996).

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houizot, P.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D. D.

Hult, J.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[Crossref]

Humbert, G.

Jackson, S. D.

Jeyasekharan, A. D.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joly, N.

Joly, N. Y.

Judge, A. C.

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kinsler, P.

P. Kinsler, “Optical pulse propagation with minimal approximations,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013819 (2010).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Ko, T. H.

Kopf, D.

Korzennik, S.

Kudlinski, A.

Lederer, M.

Lee, H. W.

Leon-Saval, S.

Lezal, D.

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty 40, 55–59 (1996).

Li, C. H.

Li, E. B.

Li, X. D.

Lipson, M.

Luan, F.

Magi, E.

Mägi, E. C.

Marandi, A.

Mechin, D.

Moizan, V.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moll, K. D.

Moss, D. J.

Mussot, A.

Nazabal, V.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nelson, J. S.

Nguyen, V. Q.

R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Niu, Y.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pedlikova, J.

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty 40, 55–59 (1996).

Phillips, D. F.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Podlipensky, A.

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023808 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popov, S.

Popov, S. V.

Potenza, M.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pureza, P. C.

R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Quemard, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

Renard, W.

Renversez, G.

Rudy, C. W.

Rulkov, A.

Russell, P. St. J.

N. Granzow, S. P. Stark, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, R. F. Russell, N. Y. Joly, H. K. Tyagi, P. Uebel, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-assisted melt-filling and optical characterization of Au nano-wires in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12180–12189 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Granzow, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Bandgap guidance in hybrid chalcogenide-silica photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2432–2434 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, “High index-contrast all-solid photonic crystal fibers by pressure-assisted melt infiltration of silica matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(35-36), 1829–1836 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry 16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12(2), 299–309 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, R. F.

Sadler, P. J.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry 16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sanghera, J. S.

Sasselov, D.

Scharrer, M.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry 16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schmidt, M. A.

Scripachev, I. V.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Sharma, A.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shaw, L. B.

Shiryaev, V. S.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Smektala, F.

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[Crossref]

Snopatin, G. E.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

St J Russell, P.

St. J. Russell, P.

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023808 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stark, S. P.

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023808 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Granzow, S. P. Stark, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Stifter, D.

Swartling, J.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Taylor, J.

Taylor, J. R.

Toupin, P.

Travers, J. C.

Troles, J.

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tuniz, A.

Tverjanovich, A. S.

Tyagi, H. K.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uebel, P.

Venkitaraman, A. R.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vogt, R.

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty 40, 55–59 (1996).

Vyatkin, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Walsworth, R. L.

Wang, Y.

Watt, R. S.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wiesauer, K.

Windeler, R. S.

Wondraczek, L.

Xiong, C.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ceramics-Silikaty (1)

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty 40, 55–59 (1996).

Chemistry (1)

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry 16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[Crossref]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, “High index-contrast all-solid photonic crystal fibers by pressure-assisted melt infiltration of silica matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(35-36), 1829–1836 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (13)

G. Humbert, W. J. Wadsworth, S. Leon-Saval, J. C. Knight, T. Birks, P. St J Russell, M. Lederer, D. Kopf, K. Wiesauer, E. Breuer, and D. Stifter, “Supercontinuum generation system for optical coherence tomography based on tapered photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express 14(4), 1596–1603 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2798–2804 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Q. Chang, L. J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm-1,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13239–13249 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “29 W High power CW supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5954–5962 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chapman, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, A. Mussot, and A. Kudlinski, “Long wavelength extension of CW-pumped supercontinuum through soliton-dispersive wave interactions,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24729–24734 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12(2), 299–309 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rulkov, M. Vyatkin, S. Popov, J. Taylor, and V. Gapontsev, “High brightness picosecond all-fiber generation in 525-1800nm range with picosecond Yb pumping,” Opt. Express 13(2), 377–381 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tuniz, G. Brawley, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Two-photon absorption effects on Raman gain in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide glass fiber,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18524–18534 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Granzow, S. P. Stark, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2880–2887 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, R. F. Russell, N. Y. Joly, H. K. Tyagi, P. Uebel, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-assisted melt-filling and optical characterization of Au nano-wires in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12180–12189 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023808 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Kinsler, “Optical pulse propagation with minimal approximations,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013819 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Heraeus Datasheet for Suprasil glass.

J. Bethge, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, M. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “Optically Referenced Tm-Fiber-Laser Frequency Comb,” in Lasers, Sources, and Related Photonic Devices, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper AT5A.3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the nano-spike chalcogenide-silica step-index waveguide. Section A shows the nano-spike used for efficient incoupling. The supercontinuum is generated in the constant-diameter part (section B). (b) Side images, taken with an optical microscope, of the waveguide used in the experiments. The core diameter increases from 0 to 1 µm along the 300 µm long taper transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Group velocity dispersion of the fundamental mode of the chalcogenide-silica waveguide (core diameter 1 µm, section B in Fig. 1(a)). The wavelength of the pump laser (~2.0 µm, indicated by the purple dashed line) falls into the anomalous dispersion regime (magenta area). (b) Modal attenuation (green curve). For both diagrams, the red and the blue curves show the corresponding material properties of As2S3 and SiO2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated mode field diameter (blue curve) as a function of local core diameter (the corresponding distance from the tip is given by the upper abscissa). The blue dot represents the core diameter and distance where the waist of the incoming beam matches the mode field diameter. The red curves represent the fractions of power flowing in core and cladding. SM and MM regions are indicated by the light red and green areas.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Contributions to the nonlinear coefficient of the guided mode from the core and the cladding (red: As2S3 core, blue: silica. All calculations were performed at λ = 2 µm). (b) Contour plot showing the regions of normal dispersion (yellow-shaded area) and anomalous dispersion (grey-shaded area) as a function of diameter and wavelength. The purple dashed line represents the pump laser of 2 µm. The waveguide is MM inside the green region and SM outside.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic diagram of the SC set-up. Pulses from a Tm-doped fiber laser were coupled into the nano-spike using an IR lens. The transmitted light was recorded using an FTIR, after blocking any undesired cladding light using iris diaphragm. (b) Experimental SC spectra taken at different pulse energies (12% coupling efficiency, blue: 5.0 pJ, green: 7.5 pJ, orange: 10.5 pJ, red: 18 pJ). The purple curve represents the laser spectrum. The lower right-hand image shows the measured near-field profile of the mode at the output end of the waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of the ultrashort optical pulse after propagating along the chalcogenide-silica waveguide (sample length 1.7 mm, including spike). (a) Numerical simulations. (b) Experimental results (parameters given in the text). In both diagrams the grey curve represents the input spectrum.

Equations (1)

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A(z,τ) z =DA(z,τ)i( γ( ω 0 )+i γ 1 τ )×( A(z,τ) R(t') | A(z,τ) | 2 dt' )

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