Abstract

Efficient generation of a broad-band mid-infrared supercontinuum spectrum is reported in an arsenic trisulphide waveguide embedded in silica. A chalcogenide “nano-spike”, designed to transform the incident light adiabatically into the fundamental mode of a 2-mm-long uniform section 1 µm in diameter, is used to achieve high launch efficiencies. The nano-spike is fully encapsulated in a fused silica cladding, protecting it from the environment. Nano-spikes provide a convenient means of launching light into sub-wavelength scale waveguides. Ultrashort (65 fs, repetition rate 100 MHz) pulses at wavelength 2 µm, delivered from a Tm-doped fiber laser, are launched with an efficiency ~12% into the sub-wavelength chalcogenide waveguide. Soliton fission and dispersive wave generation along the uniform section result in spectral broadening out to almost 4 µm for launched energies of only 18 pJ. The spectrum generated will have immediate uses in metrology and infrared spectroscopy.

© 2013 OSA

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2009

2008

B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “29 W High power CW supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express16(8), 5954–5962 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tuniz, G. Brawley, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Two-photon absorption effects on Raman gain in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide glass fiber,” Opt. Express16(22), 18524–18534 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc.227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 341–349 (2001).

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.26(9), 608–610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett.25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty40, 55–59 (1996).

1989

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

Aggarwal, I. D.

Almeida, V. R.

Artiglia, M.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benedick, A. J.

Biancalana, F.

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023808 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express12(2), 299–309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Brawley, G.

Breuer, E.

Brilland, L.

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Calvez, L.

Canat, G.

Chang, G. Q.

Chapman, B. H.

Chartier, T.

Chen, J. S. Y.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chen, L. J.

Chen, Z.

Chudoba, C.

Churbanov, M. F.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 341–349 (2001).

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coppa, G.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Couderc, V.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coulombier, Q.

Cramer, C.

Cumberland, B. A.

Da, N.

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, “High index-contrast all-solid photonic crystal fibers by pressure-assisted melt infiltration of silica matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(35-36), 1829–1836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, S.

Dekker, S. A.

Desevedavy, F.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Di Vita, P.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duhant, M.

Duverger-Arfuso, C.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

El Amraoui, M.

Elder, A. D.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc.227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Euser, T. G.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Farrer, N. J.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Fendel, P.

Foster, M. A.

Frank, J. H.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc.227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Furesz, G.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gapontsev, V.

Gattass, R.

R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghanta, R. K.

Glenday, A. G.

Granzow, N.

Gurovic, J.

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty40, 55–59 (1996).

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houizot, P.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

Hult, J.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

Jackson, S. D.

Jeyasekharan, A. D.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc.227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joly, N.

Joly, N. Y.

Judge, A. C.

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc.227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kinsler, P.

P. Kinsler, “Optical pulse propagation with minimal approximations,” Phys. Rev. A81(1), 013819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Ko, T. H.

Kopf, D.

Korzennik, S.

Kudlinski, A.

Lederer, M.

Lee, H. W.

Leon-Saval, S.

Lezal, D.

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty40, 55–59 (1996).

Li, C. H.

Li, E. B.

Li, X. D.

Lipson, M.

Luan, F.

Magi, E.

Mägi, E. C.

Marandi, A.

Mechin, D.

Moizan, V.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

Moss, D. J.

Mussot, A.

Nazabal, V.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Nguyen, V. Q.

R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Y.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pedlikova, J.

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty40, 55–59 (1996).

Phillips, D. F.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 341–349 (2001).

Podlipensky, A.

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023808 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S.

Popov, S. V.

Potenza, M.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pureza, P. C.

R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quemard, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Renard, W.

Renversez, G.

Rudy, C. W.

Rulkov, A.

Russell, P. St. J.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, R. F. Russell, N. Y. Joly, H. K. Tyagi, P. Uebel, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-assisted melt-filling and optical characterization of Au nano-wires in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express19(13), 12180–12189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Granzow, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Bandgap guidance in hybrid chalcogenide-silica photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2432–2434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Granzow, S. P. Stark, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, “High index-contrast all-solid photonic crystal fibers by pressure-assisted melt infiltration of silica matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(35-36), 1829–1836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4729–4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express12(2), 299–309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, R. F.

Sadler, P. J.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sanghera, J. S.

Sasselov, D.

Scharrer, M.

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schmidt, M. A.

Scripachev, I. V.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 341–349 (2001).

Sharma, A.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Shiryaev, V. S.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 341–349 (2001).

Smektala, F.

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Snopatin, G. E.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 341–349 (2001).

St J Russell, P.

St. J. Russell, P.

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023808 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stark, S. P.

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023808 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Granzow, S. P. Stark, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Stifter, D.

Swartling, J.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc.227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Taylor, J.

Taylor, J. R.

Toupin, P.

Travers, J. C.

Troles, J.

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tuniz, A.

Tverjanovich, A. S.

Tyagi, H. K.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uebel, P.

Venkitaraman, A. R.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc.227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vogt, R.

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty40, 55–59 (1996).

Vyatkin, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Walsworth, R. L.

Wang, Y.

Watt, R. S.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiesauer, K.

Windeler, R. S.

Wondraczek, L.

Xiong, C.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ceramics-Silikaty

D. Lezal, J. Pedlikova, J. Gurovic, and R. Vogt, “The preparation of chalcogenide glasses in chlorine reactive atmosphere,” Ceramics-Silikaty40, 55–59 (1996).

Chemistry

J. S. Y. Chen, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, M. Scharrer, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photochemistry in photonic Crystal Fiber Nanoreactors,” Chemistry16(19), 5607–5612 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. Di Vita, M. Potenza, and A. Sharma, “Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1139–1152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4729–4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc.227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. St. J. Russell, “High index-contrast all-solid photonic crystal fibers by pressure-assisted melt infiltration of silica matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(35-36), 1829–1836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 341–349 (2001).

Mater. Res. Bull.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 μm,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(4), 976–982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “29 W High power CW supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express16(8), 5954–5962 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tuniz, G. Brawley, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Two-photon absorption effects on Raman gain in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide glass fiber,” Opt. Express16(22), 18524–18534 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express12(2), 299–309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express12(13), 2880–2887 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rulkov, M. Vyatkin, S. Popov, J. Taylor, and V. Gapontsev, “High brightness picosecond all-fiber generation in 525-1800nm range with picosecond Yb pumping,” Opt. Express13(2), 377–381 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, W. J. Wadsworth, S. Leon-Saval, J. C. Knight, T. Birks, P. St J Russell, M. Lederer, D. Kopf, K. Wiesauer, E. Breuer, and D. Stifter, “Supercontinuum generation system for optical coherence tomography based on tapered photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express14(4), 1596–1603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express14(7), 2798–2804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Q. Chang, L. J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm-1,” Opt. Express18(12), 13239–13249 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Chapman, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, A. Mussot, and A. Kudlinski, “Long wavelength extension of CW-pumped supercontinuum through soliton-dispersive wave interactions,” Opt. Express18(24), 24729–24734 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, R. F. Russell, N. Y. Joly, H. K. Tyagi, P. Uebel, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-assisted melt-filling and optical characterization of Au nano-wires in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express19(13), 12180–12189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Granzow, S. P. Stark, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

S. P. Stark, F. Biancalana, A. Podlipensky, and P. St. J. Russell, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers with three zero-dispersion points,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023808 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kinsler, “Optical pulse propagation with minimal approximations,” Phys. Rev. A81(1), 013819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

Heraeus Datasheet for Suprasil glass.

J. Bethge, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, M. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “Optically Referenced Tm-Fiber-Laser Frequency Comb,” in Lasers, Sources, and Related Photonic Devices, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper AT5A.3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the nano-spike chalcogenide-silica step-index waveguide. Section A shows the nano-spike used for efficient incoupling. The supercontinuum is generated in the constant-diameter part (section B). (b) Side images, taken with an optical microscope, of the waveguide used in the experiments. The core diameter increases from 0 to 1 µm along the 300 µm long taper transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Group velocity dispersion of the fundamental mode of the chalcogenide-silica waveguide (core diameter 1 µm, section B in Fig. 1(a)). The wavelength of the pump laser (~2.0 µm, indicated by the purple dashed line) falls into the anomalous dispersion regime (magenta area). (b) Modal attenuation (green curve). For both diagrams, the red and the blue curves show the corresponding material properties of As2S3 and SiO2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated mode field diameter (blue curve) as a function of local core diameter (the corresponding distance from the tip is given by the upper abscissa). The blue dot represents the core diameter and distance where the waist of the incoming beam matches the mode field diameter. The red curves represent the fractions of power flowing in core and cladding. SM and MM regions are indicated by the light red and green areas.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Contributions to the nonlinear coefficient of the guided mode from the core and the cladding (red: As2S3 core, blue: silica. All calculations were performed at λ = 2 µm). (b) Contour plot showing the regions of normal dispersion (yellow-shaded area) and anomalous dispersion (grey-shaded area) as a function of diameter and wavelength. The purple dashed line represents the pump laser of 2 µm. The waveguide is MM inside the green region and SM outside.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic diagram of the SC set-up. Pulses from a Tm-doped fiber laser were coupled into the nano-spike using an IR lens. The transmitted light was recorded using an FTIR, after blocking any undesired cladding light using iris diaphragm. (b) Experimental SC spectra taken at different pulse energies (12% coupling efficiency, blue: 5.0 pJ, green: 7.5 pJ, orange: 10.5 pJ, red: 18 pJ). The purple curve represents the laser spectrum. The lower right-hand image shows the measured near-field profile of the mode at the output end of the waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of the ultrashort optical pulse after propagating along the chalcogenide-silica waveguide (sample length 1.7 mm, including spike). (a) Numerical simulations. (b) Experimental results (parameters given in the text). In both diagrams the grey curve represents the input spectrum.

Equations (1)

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A(z,τ) z =DA(z,τ)i( γ( ω 0 )+i γ 1 τ )×( A(z,τ) R(t') | A(z,τ) | 2 dt' )

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