Abstract

A liquid crystal (LC) device, called a “q-plate” (QP), which is based on axially symmetric photo-alignment was investigated. The electrically tunable LC QP device could be modulated to control the shape and polarization of a linearly polarized Gaussian laser beam that propagated through it. The intensity profile and polarization distribution were simulated by MATLAB and 1D-DIMOS. The results of the simulation were consistent with experimental findings. In the fabricated electrically tunable LC QP device, switching between different beam-profile configurations can be realized by applying a voltage. Moreover, the fabrication of an LC QP is relatively simple, and the device has potential for such practical applications as beam shape modulators and spatial polarization converters use in diffractive optics and imaging systems.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Liquid crystal spatial-mode converters for the orbital angular momentum of light,” J. Opt.15(2), 025406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Hajizadeh and S. N. S. Reihani, “Optimized optical trapping of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express18(2), 551–559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Tzeng, S.-W. Ke, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric polarization converters based on photo-aligned liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express16(6), 3768–3775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. F¨urhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys.9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. E. Lembessis, D. Ellinas, A. J. Wright, J. M. Girkin, P. Ohberg, and A. S. Arnold, “Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms,” Opt. Express15(14), 8619–8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

S. H. Tao, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, and R. E. Burge, “Residue orbital angular momentum in interferenced double vortex beams with unequal topological charges,” Opt. Express14(2), 535–541 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. J. Schmitz, K. Uhrig, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Tuning the orbital angular momentum in optical vortex beams,” Opt. Express14(15), 6604–6612 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh Criterion Limit with Optical Vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(22), 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

Agarwal, R.

Anzolin, G.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh Criterion Limit with Optical Vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, A. S.

Barbieri, C.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh Criterion Limit with Optical Vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, H. C.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. F¨urhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys.9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, A.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh Criterion Limit with Optical Vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, D. F.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, Z.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burge, R. E.

Bustamante, C.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-Yu.

Cheng, K.-T.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chigrinov, V.

S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Liquid crystal spatial-mode converters for the orbital angular momentum of light,” J. Opt.15(2), 025406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.-C.

Curtis, J. E.

De Martini, F.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express17(21), 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

Ellinas, D.

F¨urhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. F¨urhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys.9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Fu, T.-L.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

Girkin, J. M.

Grier, D. G.

Hajizadeh, F.

Huang, Y.-H.

Jau, H.-C.

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. F¨urhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys.9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

Johnson, E. G.

Karimi, E.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express17(21), 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, S.-W.

Ko, S.-W.

Ladavac, K.

Leach, J.

Lee, C.-R.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lembessis, V. E.

Leppelmeier, G. W.

Lieber, C. M.

Lin, J.

Lin, T.-H.

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(22), 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Liquid crystal spatial-mode converters for the orbital angular momentum of light,” J. Opt.15(2), 025406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express17(21), 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(22), 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. F¨urhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys.9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mo, T.-S.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murauski, A.

Nagali, E.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express17(21), 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nix, M.

Oddershede, L. B.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohberg, P.

Padgett, M. J.

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(22), 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piccirillo, B.

S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Liquid crystal spatial-mode converters for the orbital angular momentum of light,” J. Opt.15(2), 025406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express17(21), 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poutous, M. K.

Reihani, S. N. S.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. F¨urhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys.9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roichman, Y.

Roth, Z. A.

Rumpf, R. C.

Sansoni, L.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santamato, E.

S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Liquid crystal spatial-mode converters for the orbital angular momentum of light,” J. Opt.15(2), 025406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express17(21), 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, C. H. J.

Schubert, O.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sciarrino, F.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express17(21), 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selhuber-Unkel, C.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, W. W.

Slussarenko, S.

S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Liquid crystal spatial-mode converters for the orbital angular momentum of light,” J. Opt.15(2), 025406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. B.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spatz, J. P.

Srinivasan, P.

Tamburini, F.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh Criterion Limit with Optical Vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, S. H.

Tian, Z.-B.

Ting, C.-L.

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, Y.-Y.

Uhrig, K.

Umbriaco, G.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh Criterion Limit with Optical Vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, A. J.

Yam, S. S.-H.

Yilmaz, Y. O.

Yu, G.

Yuan, X. C.

Zins, I.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(22), 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (2)

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt.13(6), 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Liquid crystal spatial-mode converters for the orbital angular momentum of light,” J. Opt.15(2), 025406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 720–723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. F¨urhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys.9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. E. Lembessis, D. Ellinas, A. J. Wright, J. M. Girkin, P. Ohberg, and A. S. Arnold, “Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms,” Opt. Express15(14), 8619–8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Tao, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, and R. E. Burge, “Residue orbital angular momentum in interferenced double vortex beams with unequal topological charges,” Opt. Express14(2), 535–541 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. J. Schmitz, K. Uhrig, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Tuning the orbital angular momentum in optical vortex beams,” Opt. Express14(15), 6604–6612 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Tzeng, S.-W. Ke, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric polarization converters based on photo-aligned liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express16(6), 3768–3775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express17(21), 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Agarwal, K. Ladavac, Y. Roichman, G. Yu, C. M. Lieber, and D. G. Grier, “Manipulation and assembly of nanowires with holographic optical traps,” Opt. Express13(22), 8906–8912 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hajizadeh and S. N. S. Reihani, “Optimized optical trapping of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express18(2), 551–559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Srinivasan, M. K. Poutous, Z. A. Roth, Y. O. Yilmaz, R. C. Rumpf, and E. G. Johnson, “Spatial and spectral beam shaping with spacevariant guided mode resonance filters,” Opt. Express17(22), 20365–20375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the Rayleigh Criterion Limit with Optical Vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2004), Chap. 4.

“Technical Computing with MATLAB,” The MathWorks, Inc, (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample fabrication setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) POM images of LC QPs with q = 2, 1.5, −1.5, and −2; (b) numerically simulated POM images with q = 2, 1.5, −1.5, and −2; (c) schematics of LC director.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for analyzing liquid crystal QP devices.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Various beam shapes were obtained by modulation by LC QP with q values of ± 1.5 and ± 2 when suitable voltages were applied.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated intensity distribution, obtained by summing |(E)2x|2 and |(E)2y|2, when a y-polarized Gaussian beam was incident onto the LC QPs for various phase-retardation shifts at various applied voltages.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Numerically simulated polarization distributions in transverse plane, following modulation by an LC QP with q = ± 1.5 and q = ± 2.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α   (x,y) =α   (ϕ) =qϕ+α   (0) ,
M (ϕ, V) =[ cos(ϕ) sin(ϕ) sin(ϕ) cos(ϕ) ][ 2πd n eff(V) /λ 0 0 2πd n o /λ ][ cos(ϕ) sin(ϕ) sin(ϕ) cos(ϕ) ],
E in = E 1y j = E 1y [ 0 1 ], and E 1y = E 0 ω 0 ω(z) exp[ ( r 2 ω 2 (z) jk r 2 2R(z) jkz ) ] ,
E out = M ( ϕ, V ) E 1y [ 0 1 ]=[ E 2x E 2y ]= E 2x [ 1 0 ]+ E 2y [ 0 1 ],
U(ε, η)= e jkz e jk( ε 2 + η 2 )/2z jλz U(x, y)exp[ j 2π λz (εx+ηy) ] dxdy,

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