Abstract

In this work we present a rapid and parallel process for the fabrication of large scale arrays of electrically driven nanopillars for THz quantum cascade active media. We demonstrate electrical injection of pillars of 200 nm diameter and 2 µm height, over a surface of 1 mm2. THz electroluminescence from the nanopillars is reported. This result is a promising step toward the realization of zero-dimensional structure for terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microcavity laser oscillating in a circuit-based resonator,” Science327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. N. Randal, M. A. Reed, R. J. Matyi, and T. M. Moore, “Nanostructure fabrication of zero‐dimensional quantum dot diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6(6), 1861–1865 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Sakaki, “Quantum wires, quantum boxes and related structures: physics, device potentials and structural requirements,” Surf. Sci.267(1-3), 623–629 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the Threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(9), 1915–1921 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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  11. A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. S. Wingreen and C. A. Stafford, “Quantum-dot cascade laser: proposal for an ultralow-threshold semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(7), 1170–1173 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. F. Hsu, J. S. O, P. O. Zory, and D. Botez, “Intersubband quantum-box semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(3), 491–503 (2000).
  14. D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Tredicucci, “Quantum dots: long life in zero dimensions,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 775–776 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and J. B. Khurgin, “Active region design of a terahertz GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N quantum cascade laser,” Superlattices Microstruct.37(2), 107–113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255302 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ~ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microcavity laser oscillating in a circuit-based resonator,” Science327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Tredicucci, “Quantum dots: long life in zero dimensions,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 775–776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and J. B. Khurgin, “Active region design of a terahertz GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N quantum cascade laser,” Superlattices Microstruct.37(2), 107–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. F. Hsu, J. S. O, P. O. Zory, and D. Botez, “Intersubband quantum-box semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(3), 491–503 (2000).

1999 (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

N. S. Wingreen and C. A. Stafford, “Quantum-dot cascade laser: proposal for an ultralow-threshold semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(7), 1170–1173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Sakaki, “Quantum wires, quantum boxes and related structures: physics, device potentials and structural requirements,” Surf. Sci.267(1-3), 623–629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. N. Randal, M. A. Reed, R. J. Matyi, and T. M. Moore, “Nanostructure fabrication of zero‐dimensional quantum dot diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6(6), 1861–1865 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the Threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(9), 1915–1921 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microcavity laser oscillating in a circuit-based resonator,” Science327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asada, M.

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the Threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(9), 1915–1921 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bachle, A.

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ban, D.

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bastard, G.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microcavity laser oscillating in a circuit-based resonator,” Science327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C.

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belyanin, A.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bismuto, A.

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Botez, D.

C. F. Hsu, J. S. O, P. O. Zory, and D. Botez, “Intersubband quantum-box semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(3), 491–503 (2000).

Capasso, F.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, B. A.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castellano, F.

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. W. I.

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C. L.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, S.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drachenko, O.

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microcavity laser oscillating in a circuit-based resonator,” Science327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fathololoumi, S.

Fedorov, G.

A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, R.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, P.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gramm, F.

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grange, T.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grolig, J.

L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, M.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. F.

C. F. Hsu, J. S. O, P. O. Zory, and D. Botez, “Intersubband quantum-box semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(3), 491–503 (2000).

Hu, Q.

Hwang, H. Y.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isa, L.

L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jirauschek, C.

Kapon, E.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and J. B. Khurgin, “Active region design of a terahertz GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N quantum cascade laser,” Superlattices Microstruct.37(2), 107–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, K.

L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laframboise, S. R.

Lai, P. T.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leotin, J.

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leung, C. H.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. C.

Liu, H. Y.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liverini, V.

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mátyás, A.

Matyi, R. J.

J. N. Randal, M. A. Reed, R. J. Matyi, and T. M. Moore, “Nanostructure fabrication of zero‐dimensional quantum dot diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6(6), 1861–1865 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the Threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(9), 1915–1921 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moore, T. M.

J. N. Randal, M. A. Reed, R. J. Matyi, and T. M. Moore, “Nanostructure fabrication of zero‐dimensional quantum dot diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6(6), 1861–1865 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevou, L.

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. N.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolic, R. J.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Notzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O, J. S.

C. F. Hsu, J. S. O, P. O. Zory, and D. Botez, “Intersubband quantum-box semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(3), 491–503 (2000).

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Page, H.

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palomo, J.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Porter, N. E.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randal, J. N.

J. N. Randal, M. A. Reed, R. J. Matyi, and T. M. Moore, “Nanostructure fabrication of zero‐dimensional quantum dot diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6(6), 1861–1865 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reed, M. A.

J. N. Randal, M. A. Reed, R. J. Matyi, and T. M. Moore, “Nanostructure fabrication of zero‐dimensional quantum dot diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6(6), 1861–1865 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reimhult, E.

L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, C. E.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudra, A.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rylkov, V. V.

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

H. Sakaki, “Quantum wires, quantum boxes and related structures: physics, device potentials and structural requirements,” Surf. Sci.267(1-3), 623–629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microcavity laser oscillating in a circuit-based resonator,” Science327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergent, A. M.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simic, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slutsky, B.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, D.

A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and J. B. Khurgin, “Active region design of a terahertz GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N quantum cascade laser,” Superlattices Microstruct.37(2), 107–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, C. A.

N. S. Wingreen and C. A. Stafford, “Quantum-dot cascade laser: proposal for an ultralow-threshold semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(7), 1170–1173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stehr, D.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suematsu, Y.

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the Threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(9), 1915–1921 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and J. B. Khurgin, “Active region design of a terahertz GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N quantum cascade laser,” Superlattices Microstruct.37(2), 107–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terazzi, R.

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Textor, M.

L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

A. Tredicucci, “Quantum dots: long life in zero dimensions,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 775–776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vinet, J. Y.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wade, A.

A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microcavity laser oscillating in a circuit-based resonator,” Science327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. J.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. F.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

Williams, B. S.

A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L. R.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wingreen, N. S.

N. S. Wingreen and C. A. Stafford, “Quantum-dot cascade laser: proposal for an ultralow-threshold semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(7), 1170–1173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zibik, E. A.

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zory, P. O.

C. F. Hsu, J. S. O, P. O. Zory, and D. Botez, “Intersubband quantum-box semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(3), 491–503 (2000).

ACS Nano (1)

L. Isa, K. Kumar, M. Müller, J. Grolig, M. Textor, and E. Reimhult, “Particle lithography from colloidal self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces,” ACS Nano4(10), 5665–5670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Liverini, L. Nevou, F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. Beck, F. Gramm, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature transverse-electric polarized intersubband electroluminescence from InAs/AlInAs quantum dashes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

El. Lett. (1)

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, H. Beere, J. Alton, and D. Ritchie, “Low Threshold THz QC lasers with thin active regions,” El. Lett.43(5), 41–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Gain and the Threshold of three-dimensional quantum-box Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(9), 1915–1921 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Wingreen and C. A. Stafford, “Quantum-dot cascade laser: proposal for an ultralow-threshold semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(7), 1170–1173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. F. Hsu, J. S. O, P. O. Zory, and D. Botez, “Intersubband quantum-box semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(3), 491–503 (2000).

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. Khanna, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 952–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Castellano, A. Bismuto, M. I. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, S. Blaser, A. Bachle, and J. Faist, “Loss mechanisms of quantum cascade lasers operating close to optical phonon frequencies,” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 102407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. N. Randal, M. A. Reed, R. J. Matyi, and T. M. Moore, “Nanostructure fabrication of zero‐dimensional quantum dot diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6(6), 1861–1865 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Photonic crystal light-emitting diodes fabricated by microsphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(25), 255302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

E. A. Zibik, T. Grange, B. A. Carpenter, N. E. Porter, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, H. Y. Liu, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “Long lifetimes of quantum-dot intersublevel transitions in the terahertz range,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 803–807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tredicucci, “Quantum dots: long life in zero dimensions,” Nat. Mater.8(10), 775–776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 41–45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. Smirnov, C. Becker, O. Drachenko, V. V. Rylkov, H. Page, J. Leotin, and C. Sirtori, “Control of electron-optical-phonon scattering rates in quantum box cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B66(12), 121305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Microcavity laser oscillating in a circuit-based resonator,” Science327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and J. B. Khurgin, “Active region design of a terahertz GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N quantum cascade laser,” Superlattices Microstruct.37(2), 107–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

H. Sakaki, “Quantum wires, quantum boxes and related structures: physics, device potentials and structural requirements,” Surf. Sci.267(1-3), 623–629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) SEM image of the starting substrate after the SALI deposition of the latex nanospheres. b) Fourier Transform of the deposited pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of the sample after the etching of the nanopillars using the nanospheres as hard mask. On the top of the pillars some latex residuals are still visible. Bottom panel: closer view of the nanopillars.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of the sample after the gold-gold thermocompression on the top of the pillars. The mechanical stability of the nanopillars is preserved throughout this procedure

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured voltage-light versus current characteristic at 10 K, in pulsed mode, for the nanopillars array (red line) and a standard ridge waveguide (blue line). The current scale relates to the nanopillars device, while the current density is valid for the two samples. The dissipated electrical power vs current is shown as a dashed line. Colored circles correspond to the bias where the light emission has been spectrally studied in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Top panel: calculated intersubband electroluminescence in the case of a lossy cavity. Bottom panel: measured spectra of the light emission from the nanopillars cavity for different voltages. b) Conduction band diagram of a period of the active region at an average field of 7.5kV/cm. The squared moduli of the relevant envelop wave functions are shown. Inset: Calculated potential and first five eigenstates in the conduction band for a nanopillar of bulk GaAs of 160 nm diameter. The splitting in energy is of ~5 meV

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