Abstract

This paper describes the dynamic interaction between plasmons in a two dimensional electron gas system under electrical tuning to the high density regime in AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor. The results demonstrate an enhanced resonance when the two plasmons are commonly excited, during which the potentially splitting phenomenon of such resonance is explored in detail. An asymmetrical plasmon possess wide frequency tunability has also been demonstrated in the AlN/GaN system, on the contrary, the results also indicate a finite tunable regime of symmetrical-plasmons as limited by the coupling strength between such plasmons. For the devices with narrow gate-fingers, significant near-field enhancement can be obtained due to the strong cavity pumping of electromagnetic energy. These properties may have important applications including high-responsivity quantum-dot detection systems, THz modulator etc.

© 2013 OSA

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  2. M. S. Shur, “Silicon and nitride FETs for THz sensing,” Proc. SPIE8031, 80310J (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split-grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181127 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room-temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 253508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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  8. G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, and S. J. Allen, “Novel tunable millimeter-wave grating-gated plasmonic detectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 85–91 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. I. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave electronics: novel terahertz devices using two dimensional electron fluid, ” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices43(10), 1640–1645 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, M. C. Wanke, and S. J. Allen, “Next-generation detectors—Plasmon grating-gate devices have potential as tunable terahertz detectors,” Laser Focus World44, 131–133 (2008).
  20. V. V. Popov, A. N. Koudymov, M. S. Shur, and O. V. Polischuk, “Tuning of ungated plasmons by a gate in the field-effect transistor with two-dimensional electron channel,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. E. Peale, H. Saxena, W. R. Buchwald, G. C. Dyer, and S. J. Allen., “Grating-gate tunable plasmon absorption in InP and GaN based HEMTs,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110I, 73110I-6 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, M. C. Wanke, M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Far-Infrared spectrum analysis using plasmon modes in a quantum-well transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(18), 1925–1927 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz response of field-effect transistors in saturation regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243505 (2011).
  24. A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Spectrum analysis of 2D plasmon in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(1), 8400507–8400513 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. M. Dabiran, A. M. Wowchak, A. Osinsky, J. Xie, B. Hertog, B. Cui, D. C. Look, and P. P. Chow, “Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 082111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Cao and D. Jena, “High mobility window for two-dimensional electron gases at ultrathin AlN/GaN heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Zimmermann, D. Deen, Y. Cao, J. Simon, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “AlN/GaN isulated-gate HEMTs with 2.3A/mm output current and 480 mS/mm transconductance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(7), 661–664 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Taking, D. MacFarlane, and E. Wasige, “AlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with thermally grown Al2O3 passivation,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.58(5), 1418–1424 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Current instability and plasma waves generation in ungated two-dimensional electron layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(11), 111501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, X.-D. Wang, and W. Lu, “The plasmonic resonant absorption in GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063502 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “The role of ultrathin AlN barrier in the reduction in the hot electron and self-heating effects for GaN-based double-heterojunction high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(5), 054501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express14(11), 4815–4825 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, W. Knap, and A. El Fatimy, “Broadening of the plasmon resonance due to plasmon-plasmon intermode scattering in terahertz high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 263503 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, O. V. Polischuk, and M. S. Shur, “Enhanced electromagnetic coupling between terahertz radiation and plasmons in a grating-gate transistor structure on membrane substrate,” Opt. Express18(16), 16771–16776 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  39. V. V. Popov, O. V. Polishchuk, and W. Knap, “Plasmon-plasmon scattering and giant broadening of the gated plasmon resonance line in a nanometric heterotransistor with a 2D electron channel,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics73(1), 84–87 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and A. Chaplik, “Plasma oscillations in two-dimensional electron channel with nonideally conducting side contacts,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034502 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  41. H. Marinchio, J.-F. Millithaler, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Reggiani, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gružinskis, “Plasma resonances in a gated semiconductor slab of arbitrary thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 203504 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  42. M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  43. V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, and N. J. M. Horing, “Anticrossing of plasmon resonances and giant enhancement of interlayer terahertz electric field in an asymmetric bilayer of two-dimensional electron strips,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 124303 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  44. D. V. Fateev, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Transformation of the plasmon spectrum in a grating-gate transistor structure with spatially modulated two-dimensional electron channel,” Semiconductors44(11), 1406–1413 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Spectrum analysis of 2D plasmon in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(1), 8400507–8400513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

H. Marinchio, J.-F. Millithaler, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Reggiani, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gružinskis, “Plasma resonances in a gated semiconductor slab of arbitrary thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 203504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Taking, D. MacFarlane, and E. Wasige, “AlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with thermally grown Al2O3 passivation,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.58(5), 1418–1424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, X.-D. Wang, and W. Lu, “The plasmonic resonant absorption in GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz response of field-effect transistors in saturation regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243505 (2011).

M. S. Shur, “Silicon and nitride FETs for THz sensing,” Proc. SPIE8031, 80310J (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, and S. J. Allen, “Novel tunable millimeter-wave grating-gated plasmonic detectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 85–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “The role of ultrathin AlN barrier in the reduction in the hot electron and self-heating effects for GaN-based double-heterojunction high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(5), 054501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Fateev, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Transformation of the plasmon spectrum in a grating-gate transistor structure with spatially modulated two-dimensional electron channel,” Semiconductors44(11), 1406–1413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, O. V. Polischuk, and M. S. Shur, “Enhanced electromagnetic coupling between terahertz radiation and plasmons in a grating-gate transistor structure on membrane substrate,” Opt. Express18(16), 16771–16776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polishchuk, and W. Knap, “Plasmon-plasmon scattering and giant broadening of the gated plasmon resonance line in a nanometric heterotransistor with a 2D electron channel,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics73(1), 84–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Peale, H. Saxena, W. R. Buchwald, G. C. Dyer, and S. J. Allen., “Grating-gate tunable plasmon absorption in InP and GaN based HEMTs,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110I, 73110I-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, M. C. Wanke, and S. J. Allen, “Next-generation detectors—Plasmon grating-gate devices have potential as tunable terahertz detectors,” Laser Focus World44, 131–133 (2008).

V. V. Popov, A. N. Koudymov, M. S. Shur, and O. V. Polischuk, “Tuning of ungated plasmons by a gate in the field-effect transistor with two-dimensional electron channel,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Łusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(38), 384205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Pala and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detectors for biodetection,” Electron. Lett.44(24), 1391–1392 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room-temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Dabiran, A. M. Wowchak, A. Osinsky, J. Xie, B. Hertog, B. Cui, D. C. Look, and P. P. Chow, “Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 082111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, W. Knap, and A. El Fatimy, “Broadening of the plasmon resonance due to plasmon-plasmon intermode scattering in terahertz high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 263503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Zimmermann, D. Deen, Y. Cao, J. Simon, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “AlN/GaN isulated-gate HEMTs with 2.3A/mm output current and 480 mS/mm transconductance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(7), 661–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Cao and D. Jena, “High mobility window for two-dimensional electron gases at ultrathin AlN/GaN heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split-grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, M. C. Wanke, M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Far-Infrared spectrum analysis using plasmon modes in a quantum-well transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(18), 1925–1927 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, and N. J. M. Horing, “Anticrossing of plasmon resonances and giant enhancement of interlayer terahertz electric field in an asymmetric bilayer of two-dimensional electron strips,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 124303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express14(11), 4815–4825 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, and A. Chaplik, “Plasma oscillations in two-dimensional electron channel with nonideally conducting side contacts,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Current instability and plasma waves generation in ungated two-dimensional electron layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(11), 111501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, T. V. Teperik, X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, N. J. M. Horing, and M. C. Wanke, “Absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in a grid-gated double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 3556–3562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave electronics: novel terahertz devices using two dimensional electron fluid, ” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices43(10), 1640–1645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: new mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

S. J. Allen, D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, “Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.38(17), 980–983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aizin, G. R.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, and S. J. Allen, “Novel tunable millimeter-wave grating-gated plasmonic detectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 85–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, and S. J. Allen, “Novel tunable millimeter-wave grating-gated plasmonic detectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 85–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Peale, H. Saxena, W. R. Buchwald, G. C. Dyer, and S. J. Allen., “Grating-gate tunable plasmon absorption in InP and GaN based HEMTs,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110I, 73110I-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Łusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(38), 384205 (2008).
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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Łusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(38), 384205 (2008).
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X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
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T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
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V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
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W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
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T. Zimmermann, D. Deen, Y. Cao, J. Simon, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “AlN/GaN isulated-gate HEMTs with 2.3A/mm output current and 480 mS/mm transconductance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(7), 661–664 (2008).
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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
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F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
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V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
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S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room-temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, M. C. Wanke, and S. J. Allen, “Next-generation detectors—Plasmon grating-gate devices have potential as tunable terahertz detectors,” Laser Focus World44, 131–133 (2008).

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split-grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, M. C. Wanke, M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Far-Infrared spectrum analysis using plasmon modes in a quantum-well transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(18), 1925–1927 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
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X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. M. Dabiran, A. M. Wowchak, A. Osinsky, J. Xie, B. Hertog, B. Cui, D. C. Look, and P. P. Chow, “Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 082111 (2008).
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V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, T. V. Teperik, X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, N. J. M. Horing, and M. C. Wanke, “Absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in a grid-gated double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 3556–3562 (2003).
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Hu, W. D.

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Spectrum analysis of 2D plasmon in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(1), 8400507–8400513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, X.-D. Wang, and W. Lu, “The plasmonic resonant absorption in GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “The role of ultrathin AlN barrier in the reduction in the hot electron and self-heating effects for GaN-based double-heterojunction high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(5), 054501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jena, D.

T. Zimmermann, D. Deen, Y. Cao, J. Simon, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “AlN/GaN isulated-gate HEMTs with 2.3A/mm output current and 480 mS/mm transconductance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(7), 661–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao and D. Jena, “High mobility window for two-dimensional electron gases at ultrathin AlN/GaN heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz response of field-effect transistors in saturation regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243505 (2011).

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karpierz, K.

W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Kavpierz, K.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

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W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polishchuk, and W. Knap, “Plasmon-plasmon scattering and giant broadening of the gated plasmon resonance line in a nanometric heterotransistor with a 2D electron channel,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics73(1), 84–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, W. Knap, and A. El Fatimy, “Broadening of the plasmon resonance due to plasmon-plasmon intermode scattering in terahertz high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 263503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Łusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(38), 384205 (2008).
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A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. V. Popov, A. N. Koudymov, M. S. Shur, and O. V. Polischuk, “Tuning of ungated plasmons by a gate in the field-effect transistor with two-dimensional electron channel,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, M. C. Wanke, M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Far-Infrared spectrum analysis using plasmon modes in a quantum-well transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(18), 1925–1927 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
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A. M. Dabiran, A. M. Wowchak, A. Osinsky, J. Xie, B. Hertog, B. Cui, D. C. Look, and P. P. Chow, “Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 082111 (2008).
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L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Spectrum analysis of 2D plasmon in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(1), 8400507–8400513 (2013).
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L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
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L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, X.-D. Wang, and W. Lu, “The plasmonic resonant absorption in GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063502 (2011).
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W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Lusakowski, J.

W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Łusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(38), 384205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyo, S. K.

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split-grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181127 (2007).
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S. Taking, D. MacFarlane, and E. Wasige, “AlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with thermally grown Al2O3 passivation,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.58(5), 1418–1424 (2011).
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Madjour, K.

W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
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Maremyanin, K. V.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
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H. Marinchio, J.-F. Millithaler, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Reggiani, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gružinskis, “Plasma resonances in a gated semiconductor slab of arbitrary thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 203504 (2011).
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Meziani, Y.

W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meziani, Y. M.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Millithaler, J.-F.

H. Marinchio, J.-F. Millithaler, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Reggiani, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gružinskis, “Plasma resonances in a gated semiconductor slab of arbitrary thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 203504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muravjov, A. V.

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
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A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nadar, S.

W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, T.

Orlov, M.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, A.

A. M. Dabiran, A. M. Wowchak, A. Osinsky, J. Xie, B. Hertog, B. Cui, D. C. Look, and P. P. Chow, “Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 082111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Otsuji, T.

W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express14(11), 4815–4825 (2006).
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Pala, N.

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Pala and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detectors for biodetection,” Electron. Lett.44(24), 1391–1392 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palermo, C.

H. Marinchio, J.-F. Millithaler, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Reggiani, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gružinskis, “Plasma resonances in a gated semiconductor slab of arbitrary thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 203504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peale, R. E.

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Peale, H. Saxena, W. R. Buchwald, G. C. Dyer, and S. J. Allen., “Grating-gate tunable plasmon absorption in InP and GaN based HEMTs,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110I, 73110I-6 (2009).
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Peralta, X. G.

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, T. V. Teperik, X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, N. J. M. Horing, and M. C. Wanke, “Absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in a grid-gated double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 3556–3562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polischuk, O. V.

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, O. V. Polischuk, and M. S. Shur, “Enhanced electromagnetic coupling between terahertz radiation and plasmons in a grating-gate transistor structure on membrane substrate,” Opt. Express18(16), 16771–16776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, W. Knap, and A. El Fatimy, “Broadening of the plasmon resonance due to plasmon-plasmon intermode scattering in terahertz high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 263503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, A. N. Koudymov, M. S. Shur, and O. V. Polischuk, “Tuning of ungated plasmons by a gate in the field-effect transistor with two-dimensional electron channel,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, T. V. Teperik, X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, N. J. M. Horing, and M. C. Wanke, “Absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in a grid-gated double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 3556–3562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polishchuk, O. V.

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polishchuk, and W. Knap, “Plasmon-plasmon scattering and giant broadening of the gated plasmon resonance line in a nanometric heterotransistor with a 2D electron channel,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics73(1), 84–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V. V.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Fateev, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Transformation of the plasmon spectrum in a grating-gate transistor structure with spatially modulated two-dimensional electron channel,” Semiconductors44(11), 1406–1413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, O. V. Polischuk, and M. S. Shur, “Enhanced electromagnetic coupling between terahertz radiation and plasmons in a grating-gate transistor structure on membrane substrate,” Opt. Express18(16), 16771–16776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polishchuk, and W. Knap, “Plasmon-plasmon scattering and giant broadening of the gated plasmon resonance line in a nanometric heterotransistor with a 2D electron channel,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics73(1), 84–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, W. Knap, and A. El Fatimy, “Broadening of the plasmon resonance due to plasmon-plasmon intermode scattering in terahertz high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 263503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, A. N. Koudymov, M. S. Shur, and O. V. Polischuk, “Tuning of ungated plasmons by a gate in the field-effect transistor with two-dimensional electron channel,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, G. M. Tsymbalov, and N. J. M. Horing, “Anticrossing of plasmon resonances and giant enhancement of interlayer terahertz electric field in an asymmetric bilayer of two-dimensional electron strips,” J. Appl. Phys.99(12), 124303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, T. V. Teperik, X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, N. J. M. Horing, and M. C. Wanke, “Absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in a grid-gated double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 3556–3562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reggiani, L.

H. Marinchio, J.-F. Millithaler, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Reggiani, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gružinskis, “Plasma resonances in a gated semiconductor slab of arbitrary thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 203504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, and S. J. Allen, “Novel tunable millimeter-wave grating-gated plasmonic detectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 85–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, M. C. Wanke, and S. J. Allen, “Next-generation detectors—Plasmon grating-gate devices have potential as tunable terahertz detectors,” Laser Focus World44, 131–133 (2008).

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split-grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, M. C. Wanke, M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Far-Infrared spectrum analysis using plasmon modes in a quantum-well transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(18), 1925–1927 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roelens, Y.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, S.

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz response of field-effect transistors in saturation regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243505 (2011).

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Sala, K. N.

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
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R. E. Peale, H. Saxena, W. R. Buchwald, G. C. Dyer, and S. J. Allen., “Grating-gate tunable plasmon absorption in InP and GaN based HEMTs,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110I, 73110I-6 (2009).
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A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
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M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
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G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, and S. J. Allen, “Novel tunable millimeter-wave grating-gated plasmonic detectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 85–91 (2011).
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E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, M. C. Wanke, and S. J. Allen, “Next-generation detectors—Plasmon grating-gate devices have potential as tunable terahertz detectors,” Laser Focus World44, 131–133 (2008).

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split-grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181127 (2007).
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E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, M. C. Wanke, M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Far-Infrared spectrum analysis using plasmon modes in a quantum-well transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(18), 1925–1927 (2006).
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E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
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V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
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F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
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T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz response of field-effect transistors in saturation regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243505 (2011).

M. S. Shur, “Silicon and nitride FETs for THz sensing,” Proc. SPIE8031, 80310J (2011).
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T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
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A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
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D. V. Fateev, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Transformation of the plasmon spectrum in a grating-gate transistor structure with spatially modulated two-dimensional electron channel,” Semiconductors44(11), 1406–1413 (2010).
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V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, O. V. Polischuk, and M. S. Shur, “Enhanced electromagnetic coupling between terahertz radiation and plasmons in a grating-gate transistor structure on membrane substrate,” Opt. Express18(16), 16771–16776 (2010).
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A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
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T. Zimmermann, D. Deen, Y. Cao, J. Simon, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “AlN/GaN isulated-gate HEMTs with 2.3A/mm output current and 480 mS/mm transconductance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(7), 661–664 (2008).
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Stillman, W. J.

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz response of field-effect transistors in saturation regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243505 (2011).

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
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S. Taking, D. MacFarlane, and E. Wasige, “AlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with thermally grown Al2O3 passivation,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.58(5), 1418–1424 (2011).
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V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, T. V. Teperik, X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, N. J. M. Horing, and M. C. Wanke, “Absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in a grid-gated double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 3556–3562 (2003).
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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Łusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(38), 384205 (2008).
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A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
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F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
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M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
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F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Valušis, G.

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. Marinchio, J.-F. Millithaler, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Reggiani, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gružinskis, “Plasma resonances in a gated semiconductor slab of arbitrary thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 203504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Veksler, D. B.

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Videlier, H.

W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
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L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
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L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
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L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, X.-D. Wang, and W. Lu, “The plasmonic resonant absorption in GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063502 (2011).
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Wang, L.

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Spectrum analysis of 2D plasmon in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(1), 8400507–8400513 (2013).
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L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
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L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, X.-D. Wang, and W. Lu, “The plasmonic resonant absorption in GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063502 (2011).
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L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “The role of ultrathin AlN barrier in the reduction in the hot electron and self-heating effects for GaN-based double-heterojunction high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(5), 054501 (2010).
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L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. D.

L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-D.

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, X.-D. Wang, and W. Lu, “The plasmonic resonant absorption in GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, M. C. Wanke, and S. J. Allen, “Next-generation detectors—Plasmon grating-gate devices have potential as tunable terahertz detectors,” Laser Focus World44, 131–133 (2008).

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split-grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, M. C. Wanke, M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Far-Infrared spectrum analysis using plasmon modes in a quantum-well transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(18), 1925–1927 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, T. V. Teperik, X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, N. J. M. Horing, and M. C. Wanke, “Absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in a grid-gated double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 3556–3562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wasige, E.

S. Taking, D. MacFarlane, and E. Wasige, “AlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with thermally grown Al2O3 passivation,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.58(5), 1418–1424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wowchak, A. M.

A. M. Dabiran, A. M. Wowchak, A. Osinsky, J. Xie, B. Hertog, B. Cui, D. C. Look, and P. P. Chow, “Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 082111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. H.

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room-temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

A. M. Dabiran, A. M. Wowchak, A. Osinsky, J. Xie, B. Hertog, B. Cui, D. C. Look, and P. P. Chow, “Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 082111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xing, H. G.

T. Zimmermann, D. Deen, Y. Cao, J. Simon, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “AlN/GaN isulated-gate HEMTs with 2.3A/mm output current and 480 mS/mm transconductance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(7), 661–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zemlyakov, V. E.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz response of field-effect transistors in saturation regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243505 (2011).

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, J. D.

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room-temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, T.

T. Zimmermann, D. Deen, Y. Cao, J. Simon, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “AlN/GaN isulated-gate HEMTs with 2.3A/mm output current and 480 mS/mm transconductance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(7), 661–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (16)

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split-grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. D. Zimmerman, P. Focardi, A. C. Gossard, D. H. Wu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Room-temperature terahertz detection based on bulk plasmons in antenna-coupled GaAs field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 253508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz response of field-effect transistors in saturation regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243505 (2011).

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetor, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
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F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. E. I. Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 222109 (2006).
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A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veskler, V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, N. Pala, X. Hu, R. Gaska, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Dabiran, A. M. Wowchak, A. Osinsky, J. Xie, B. Hertog, B. Cui, D. C. Look, and P. P. Chow, “Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 082111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao and D. Jena, “High mobility window for two-dimensional electron gases at ultrathin AlN/GaN heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Current instability and plasma waves generation in ungated two-dimensional electron layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(11), 111501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, X.-D. Wang, and W. Lu, “The plasmonic resonant absorption in GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063502 (2011).
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L. Wang, W. D. Hu, J. Wang, J. Wang, X. D. Wang, S. W. Wang, X. S. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmon resonant excitation in grating-gated AlN barrier transistors at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123501 (2012).
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H. Marinchio, J.-F. Millithaler, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Reggiani, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gružinskis, “Plasma resonances in a gated semiconductor slab of arbitrary thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 203504 (2011).
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V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, W. Knap, and A. El Fatimy, “Broadening of the plasmon resonance due to plasmon-plasmon intermode scattering in terahertz high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 263503 (2008).
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Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics (1)

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polishchuk, and W. Knap, “Plasmon-plasmon scattering and giant broadening of the gated plasmon resonance line in a nanometric heterotransistor with a 2D electron channel,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics73(1), 84–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Pala and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detectors for biodetection,” Electron. Lett.44(24), 1391–1392 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

T. Zimmermann, D. Deen, Y. Cao, J. Simon, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing, “AlN/GaN isulated-gate HEMTs with 2.3A/mm output current and 480 mS/mm transconductance,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(7), 661–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Spectrum analysis of 2D plasmon in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(1), 8400507–8400513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, and S. J. Allen, “Novel tunable millimeter-wave grating-gated plasmonic detectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 85–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, M. C. Wanke, M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Far-Infrared spectrum analysis using plasmon modes in a quantum-well transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(18), 1925–1927 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

M. I. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave electronics: novel terahertz devices using two dimensional electron fluid, ” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices43(10), 1640–1645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (2)

S. Taking, D. MacFarlane, and E. Wasige, “AlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with thermally grown Al2O3 passivation,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.58(5), 1418–1424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech. (1)

T. A. Elkhatib, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. J. Stillman, D. B. Veksler, K. N. Sala, X.-C. Zhang, and M. S. Shur “Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech.58(2), 331–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “The role of ultrathin AlN barrier in the reduction in the hot electron and self-heating effects for GaN-based double-heterojunction high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(5), 054501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, A. N. Koudymov, M. S. Shur, and O. V. Polischuk, “Tuning of ungated plasmons by a gate in the field-effect transistor with two-dimensional electron channel,” J. Appl. Phys.104(2), 024508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, O. V. Polischuk, T. V. Teperik, X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, N. J. M. Horing, and M. C. Wanke, “Absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in a grid-gated double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 3556–3562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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W. Knap, S. Nadar, H. Videlier, S. Boubanga-Tombet, D. Coquillat, N. Dyakonova, F. Teppe, K. Karpierz, J. Łusakowski, M. Sakowicz, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, T. Otsuji, Y. Meziani, A. E. I. Fatimy, S. Vandenbrouk, K. Madjour, D. Théron, and C. Gaquière, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.32(5), 618–628 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakonski, K. Kavpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. E. I. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves.30, 1319–1337 (2009).

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Łusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(38), 384205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Focus World (1)

E. A. Shaner, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, M. C. Wanke, and S. J. Allen, “Next-generation detectors—Plasmon grating-gate devices have potential as tunable terahertz detectors,” Laser Focus World44, 131–133 (2008).

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: new mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. S. Shur, “Silicon and nitride FETs for THz sensing,” Proc. SPIE8031, 80310J (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena, R. E. Peale, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110D (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Peale, H. Saxena, W. R. Buchwald, G. C. Dyer, and S. J. Allen., “Grating-gate tunable plasmon absorption in InP and GaN based HEMTs,” Proc. SPIE7311, 73110I, 73110I-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors (1)

D. V. Fateev, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Transformation of the plasmon spectrum in a grating-gate transistor structure with spatially modulated two-dimensional electron channel,” Semiconductors44(11), 1406–1413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure of slit grating-gate AlN/GaN HEMT. The THz wave is incident vertically from top side with the polarization of electric-field along the x axis. The induced electric field line and plasma waves are shown by the arrows.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The spectra of 2D plasmon resonances in the channels of AlN/GaN HEMTs with the width of gate slit spanning from 0.1 to 0.6μm. Two categories of plasmonic peaks a (a1, a2, a3…) and b are indicated. Insets show the dipole oscillation of gated (upper one) and ungated plasmons (lower one) in the gated and ungated channels, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plasmonic absorption spectra of the devices with different charge densities and structural sizes: (a) 1.2μm gate length and 2μm slit, blue solid and green dotted lines correspond to the lower mobility 1200cm2/Vs, and higher mobility 3000 cm2/Vs, respectively; the spectrum of the device with 0.4μm slit and 1.2μm gate length from Fig. 2 is also shown (red dashed line) for the convenience in comparison; (b) 0.5 μm gate length and 0.4μm slit, blue solid and green dotted lines correspond to lower mobility 3000cm2/Vs and higher mobility 5000cm2/Vs, respectively; the spectrum of the device with higher density 2.37 × 1013cm−2 in gated channel is also shown for the convenience in comparison (red dashed line). The sheet electron densities, if not specified, are 1.93 × 1013cm−2, 1.82 × 1013cm−2 in the gated and ungated channels, respectively. The peaks b1 and b2 in the upper panel are the fundamental and second order ungated plasmon resonances, and the peak a2 in the lower panel is the second order gated plasmon resonance. Ls is the width of gate slit, Lg is the length of gate finger.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The plasmonic spectra of the devices with (a) and without (b) gate electrodes added. (a) with gate finger, but different sheet electron densities in the ungated channel, 0.77 × 1013cm−2 (green solid line), 0.25 × 1013cm−2 (red dotted line), 0.56 × 1013cm−2 (blue dashed line); the sheet electron density in the gated region of the channel is 1.93 × 1013cm−2. (b) without gate finger, but different sheet electron densities in the channel with the same coordinate as the gated channel in (a), 3.06 × 1013cm−2 (green solid line), 1.82 × 1013cm−2 (red dotted line), 0.56 × 1013cm−2 (blue dashed line); the sheet electron density in the side channels is 1.82 × 1013cm−2. (c)The plasmon-induced electric field distributions along the channel of the device corresponding to the resonant peaks S1, S2, S3, and S4, as marked in Figs. 4(a)-4(b). The channel is located at the coordinate Y = 1.20 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The plasmonic spectra of AlN/GaN HEMTs with 2μm slit and 1.2μm gate length, the sheet electron density in the gated channel of (a) and (b) is 1.93 × 1013cm−2, 0.77 × 1013cm−2, respectively. (c) and (d) show the plasmon-induced electric-field distributions along the channel, (c) the field distribution corresponding to the resonance C2 of the ungated ASM plasmon, (d) the field distribution corresponding to the resonance C1 of the gated ASM plasmon. (e) the field strength (Abs(E)) corresponding to ASM plasmons. (f) the kinetic inductance (blue dashed line) in the gated channel as a function of the electron density; and right axis, the relative change (green dotted line) of the resistance (ΔRg/Rg) and kinetic inductance (ΔLg/Lg) in the gated channel.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The plasmonic spectra of the devices with short gate length (100nm) and the plasmon-induced electric field distribution along the channel, (a) the spectra of devices with 100nm gate length after varying the sheet electron density in the gated channel from 0.76 × 1013cm−2 down to 0.016 × 1013cm−2. The spectrum of the device without gate added (red solid line in (a)) is also shown for convenience of comparison. A frequency shift Δf = f(D2)-f(D1) is indicated near the peaks D1 and D2; (b) the plasmon-induced electric field distributions along the channel are extracted in correspondence to the peak D1 (blue dashed line), peak D2 (red solid line), and the fundamental ungated plasmon resonance in the device with 1.2μm gate length (black dotted line) in Fig. 5. The sheet electron density in the ungated channel is 1.82 × 1013cm−2 in these figures.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω p =s k 1 = e 2 n s d ε 0 ε r m * k 1 for gated plasmon
ω p = e 2 n s k 2 ε 0 (1+ ε 2 ) m * for ungated plasmon
Γ ref = Z g Z ug Z g + Z ug ,

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