Abstract

A new stray light analysis method and some suppression principles of panoramic annular lens (PAL) are introduced in this paper. The proposed method is to find stray light paths which are caused by ray splitting on two refractive surfaces of the PAL block and then cut them off. Following this principle, the stray light paths can be eliminated in the design progress by adding specific merit functions into the optical software. The methods to reduce scatter, diffraction and other stray light are also proposed. A new PAL with a field of view (FOV) of 30°~100° × 360° is designed. The stray light is suppressed more than 80% compared with a similar conventional PAL. The stray light path analysis method also can be used in other catadioptric optics.

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References

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  1. A. Stedham and P. P. Banerjee, “Panoramic annular lens attitude determination system (PALADS),” Proc. SPIE2466, 108–117 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Bankston, “SEDS, earth, atmosphere, and space imaging system (SEASIS),” Proc. SPIE2214, 257–268 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Song, Z. M. Yin, and F. Y. Hu, “Baffles design for an axial two-mirror telescope,” Opt. Eng.41(9), 2353–2356 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, and C. M. Korendyke, “Wide-angle stray-light reduction for a spaceborne optical hemispherical imager,” Appl. Opt.35(34), 6669–6673 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and Z. B. Liao, “Stray light evaluation of refract optical system,” in Proceeding of 24th National Space Detection Conference (2011).
  6. V. N. Martynov, T. I. Jakushenkova, and M. V. Urusova, “New constructions of panoramic annular lens: design principle and output characteristics analysis,” Proc. SPIE7100, 71000O (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Doi, “Panoramic imaging lens,” Patent No. US 6,646,818 B2 (2003).
  8. B. R. Johnson, “Analysis of diffraction reduction by use of a Lyot stop,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4(8), 1376–1384 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Niu, J. Bai, X. Y. Hou, and G. G. Yang, “Design of a panoramic annular lens with a long focal length,” Appl. Opt.46(32), 7850–7857 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Huang, J. Bai, and X. Y. Hou, “Design of panoramic stereo imaging with single optical system,” Opt. Express20(6), 6085–6096 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Breault Research Organization, ASAP Reference Guide (2006).

2012 (1)

2008 (1)

V. N. Martynov, T. I. Jakushenkova, and M. V. Urusova, “New constructions of panoramic annular lens: design principle and output characteristics analysis,” Proc. SPIE7100, 71000O (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2002 (1)

N. Song, Z. M. Yin, and F. Y. Hu, “Baffles design for an axial two-mirror telescope,” Opt. Eng.41(9), 2353–2356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Stedham and P. P. Banerjee, “Panoramic annular lens attitude determination system (PALADS),” Proc. SPIE2466, 108–117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. D. Bankston, “SEDS, earth, atmosphere, and space imaging system (SEASIS),” Proc. SPIE2214, 257–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Bai, J.

Banerjee, P. P.

A. Stedham and P. P. Banerjee, “Panoramic annular lens attitude determination system (PALADS),” Proc. SPIE2466, 108–117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bankston, C. D.

C. D. Bankston, “SEDS, earth, atmosphere, and space imaging system (SEASIS),” Proc. SPIE2214, 257–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buffington, A.

Hou, X. Y.

Hu, F. Y.

N. Song, Z. M. Yin, and F. Y. Hu, “Baffles design for an axial two-mirror telescope,” Opt. Eng.41(9), 2353–2356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Jackson, B. V.

Jakushenkova, T. I.

V. N. Martynov, T. I. Jakushenkova, and M. V. Urusova, “New constructions of panoramic annular lens: design principle and output characteristics analysis,” Proc. SPIE7100, 71000O (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. R.

Korendyke, C. M.

Liao, Z. B.

C. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and Z. B. Liao, “Stray light evaluation of refract optical system,” in Proceeding of 24th National Space Detection Conference (2011).

Martynov, V. N.

V. N. Martynov, T. I. Jakushenkova, and M. V. Urusova, “New constructions of panoramic annular lens: design principle and output characteristics analysis,” Proc. SPIE7100, 71000O (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niu, S.

Song, N.

N. Song, Z. M. Yin, and F. Y. Hu, “Baffles design for an axial two-mirror telescope,” Opt. Eng.41(9), 2353–2356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stedham, A.

A. Stedham and P. P. Banerjee, “Panoramic annular lens attitude determination system (PALADS),” Proc. SPIE2466, 108–117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Urusova, M. V.

V. N. Martynov, T. I. Jakushenkova, and M. V. Urusova, “New constructions of panoramic annular lens: design principle and output characteristics analysis,” Proc. SPIE7100, 71000O (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

C. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and Z. B. Liao, “Stray light evaluation of refract optical system,” in Proceeding of 24th National Space Detection Conference (2011).

Wang, Y.

C. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and Z. B. Liao, “Stray light evaluation of refract optical system,” in Proceeding of 24th National Space Detection Conference (2011).

Yang, G. G.

Yin, Z. M.

N. Song, Z. M. Yin, and F. Y. Hu, “Baffles design for an axial two-mirror telescope,” Opt. Eng.41(9), 2353–2356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Song, Z. M. Yin, and F. Y. Hu, “Baffles design for an axial two-mirror telescope,” Opt. Eng.41(9), 2353–2356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

V. N. Martynov, T. I. Jakushenkova, and M. V. Urusova, “New constructions of panoramic annular lens: design principle and output characteristics analysis,” Proc. SPIE7100, 71000O (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Stedham and P. P. Banerjee, “Panoramic annular lens attitude determination system (PALADS),” Proc. SPIE2466, 108–117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Bankston, “SEDS, earth, atmosphere, and space imaging system (SEASIS),” Proc. SPIE2214, 257–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and Z. B. Liao, “Stray light evaluation of refract optical system,” in Proceeding of 24th National Space Detection Conference (2011).

T. Doi, “Panoramic imaging lens,” Patent No. US 6,646,818 B2 (2003).

Breault Research Organization, ASAP Reference Guide (2006).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The paths of stray light reaching the detector without any reflections or after several reflections. The red and blue lines are the imaging and stray ray paths respectively. In Fig. 1(a), blue rays pass though the PAL block without any reflections and then reach the image plane after passing though the relay lens. In Fig. 1(b), blue rays are reflected between surface 2 and 3 twice in the PAL block and then reach the image plane after passing through the relay lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The paths of stray light from splitting on surface 1 or 4. In Fig. 2(a), blue rays split on surface 1 and reflected between 2 and 3. In Fig. 2(b), imaging rays split on surface 4 and are reflected twice between surface 3 and 4. Some of them reach the detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The paths of stray light from scatter by optical and mechanical surfaces. In Fig. 3(a), rays are scattered on surface 3 and the relay lens. In Fig. 3(b), rays are scattered on lens tube. Some of them can reach the detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The paths of stray light from diffraction at the edge of the aperture stop and the edge of surface 3. In Fig. 4(a), diffraction rays are generated at the aperture stop (surface 4), in Fig. 4(b), diffraction rays are generated at the edge of surface 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The stray light paths generated by reflections on surface 1 in a PAL block. The bold lines are reflective surfaces and the thin lines are refractive surfaces. The pink line is a ray path from high filed angle. It starts from A0, hits a PAL block’s surfaces at A1, A2, A3 and A4. The blue line is a ray path from a low FOV on the other side. It starts from B0, hits the PAL block’s surfaces at B1, B2, B3 and B4. (N) is the normal at B1.The black dash line B1C2 and B1B2 are symmetrical about (N). C2, C1 and C0 are the intersections which are reversed traced from the virtual ray B1C2. SagA2 and SagC2 are the distance from A2 and C2 to the optical axis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The mathematical model of a PAL block. The PAL block is put upwards. The stop center is at the origin of the coordinate. (A) is the chief ray vector from P0. (B) is the refractive ray vector of (A). P1 and P2 are the intersections on surfaces 1 and 2. N1 is the normal vector at P1. B’ and (B) are symmetrical about N1. B’ reaches surface 2 at P2’. The incident ray starting from P0max (highest FOV) hits surface 1 at P1max and surface 2 at P2max.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The stray light paths generated by reflections on surface 4 in a PAL block. The bold lines are reflective surfaces and the thin lines are refractive surfaces. The pink and blue hard lines are imaging rays which start from A0 and B0 respectively. (N) is the normal at B4. The blue dash lines B4B5, B5B6 and B7B8 are traced in sequence from B4. The blue dash line B4B5 and blue hard line B3B4 are symmetrical about (N). O1 and O2 are two edges of surface 4, and they are the stop edges too. SagB6 and SagO1 are the distance from B6 and O1 to the optical axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The mathematical model of a PAL block. The coordinate system is as same as Fig. 6. (A) is the incident vector from P0. The intersections on surface 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the chief ray are P1, P2, P3 and P4. The reflective vectors from P1 are (B), (C) and (D) (hard black line). (D) and (E) (dash blue line) are symmetrical about the Z axis. (F) (dash blue line) is the reflective vector of (E) starting from the interception P5 on surface 3. It intersects on surface 2 at P6. O1 and O2 are at the edges of the aperture stop.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The structures and MTF of two PAL systems. Figure 9(a) is the structure of a new PAL designed with suppression merit functions and its MTF of all FOV at 100lp/mm. Figure 9(b) is the structure of a conventional PAL designed without stray light suppression merit functions and its MTF of all FOV at 100pl/mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The profiles of PAL systems with lens tubes and baffle vanes. The curve in front of surface 1 is the point source’s track. In the simulations, the source is located from the optical axis to the edge of surface 1. The black point is one of the source’s locations in the simulation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The stray light ratio vs. the radius from center. The hard lines respect the result that only stray light mentioned in section 2.2 is considered. The dash lines respect the result that all kinds of stray light mentioned in section 2 are considered. The blue and red lines respect the new and conventional PAL respectively.

Equations (5)

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f s1 (x,z): x 2 + (z z 1o ) 2 = r 1 2 ( r 1 >| z 1o |)
f s2 (x,z): x 2 + (z r 2 ) 2 = r 2 2 ( r 2 >0)
f s3 (x,z): x 2 + (z z 3o ) 2 = r 3 2 ( r 3 >| z 3o |)
|x ' 2min || x 2max |0
F min (x)= x 6min x O1

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