Abstract

Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a promising reconfigurable optical material and has long been a focus of condensed matter research owing to its distinctive semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (SMT), a feature that has stimulated recent development of thermally reconfigurable photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial structures. Here, we integrate VO2 onto silicon photonic devices and demonstrate all-optical switching and reconfiguration of ultra-compact broadband Si-VO2 absorption modulators (L < 1 μm) and ring-resonators (R ~ λ0). Optically inducing the SMT in a small, ~0.275 μm2, active area of polycrystalline VO2 enables Si-VO2 structures to achieve record values of absorption modulation, ~4 dB μm−1, and intracavity phase modulation, ~π/5 rad μm−1. This in turn yields large, tunable changes to resonant wavelength, |ΔλSMT| ~ 3 nm, approximately 60 times larger than Si-only control devices, and enables reconfigurable filtering and optical modulation in excess of 7 dB from modest Q-factor (~103), high-bandwidth ring resonators (>100 GHz). All-optical integrated Si-VO2 devices thus constitute platforms for reconfigurable photonics, bringing new opportunities to realize dynamic on-chip networks and ultrafast optical shutters and modulators.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(6), 061101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (13)

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Marvel, K. Appavoo, B. K. Choi, J. Nag, and R. F. Haglund., “Electron-beam deposition of vanadium dioxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. A, (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Wall, D. Wegkamp, L. Foglia, K. Appavoo, J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, J. Stähler, and M. Wolf, “Ultrafast changes in lattice symmetry probed by coherent phonons,” Nat Commun3, 721 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. S. Tao, T. R. T. Han, S. D. Mahanti, P. M. Duxbury, F. Yuan, C. Y. Ruan, K. Wang, and J. Q. Wu, “Decoupling of Structural and Electronic Phase Transitions in VO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(16), 166406 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, E. Andrew Payzant, and K. L. More, “Non-congruence of thermally driven structural and electronic transitions in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys.112(10), 103532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B85(15), 155120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ryckman and S. M. Weiss, “Low mode volume slotted photonic crystal single nanobeam cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 071104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakano, K. Shibuya, D. Okuyama, T. Hatano, S. Ono, M. Kawasaki, Y. Iwasa, and Y. Tokura, “Collective bulk carrier delocalization driven by electrostatic surface charge accumulation,” Nature487(7408), 459–462 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wei, H. Ji, W. Guo, A. H. Nevidomskyy, and D. Natelson, “Hydrogen stabilization of metallic vanadium dioxide in single-crystal nanobeams,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(6), 357–362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hada, D. Zhang, A. Casandruc, R. J. D. Miller, Y. Hontani, J. Matsuo, R. E. Marvel, and R. F. Haglund., “Hot electron injection driven phase transitions,” Phys. Rev. B86(13), 134101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. M. Quan, Y. N. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat Commun3, 846 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ryckman, V. Diez-Blanco, J. Nag, R. E. Marvel, B. K. Choi, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Photothermal optical modulation of ultra-compact hybrid Si-VO₂ ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(12), 13215–13225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

N. N. Feng, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(11), 726–732 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang and S. Ramanathan, “Analysis of “on” and “off” times for thermally driven VO2 metal-insulator transition nanoscale switching devices,” Solid-State Electron.62(1), 161–164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Pashkin, C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (5)

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory Metamaterials,” Science325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal-insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(11), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, J. D. Deng, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Electrical triggering of metal-insulator transition in nanoscale vanadium oxide junctions,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 083702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nag and R. F. Haglund., “Synthesis of vanadium dioxide thin films and nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(26), 264016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(18), 181904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(11), 116401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lysenko, A. Rua, V. Vikhnin, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Insulator-to-metal phase transition and recovery processes in VO2 thin films after femtosecond laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express15(3), 924–929 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. M. Choi, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Control of critical coupling in a ring resonator-fiber configuration: application to wavelength-selective switching, modulation, amplification, and oscillation,” Opt. Lett.26(16), 1236–1238 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, “Optical Properties of VO2 between 0.25 and 5 eV,” Phys. Rev.172(3), 788–798 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(6), 061101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Alain, D.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(6), 061101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, G. O.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrew Payzant, E.

J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, E. Andrew Payzant, and K. L. More, “Non-congruence of thermally driven structural and electronic transitions in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys.112(10), 103532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appavoo, K.

S. Wall, D. Wegkamp, L. Foglia, K. Appavoo, J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, J. Stähler, and M. Wolf, “Ultrafast changes in lattice symmetry probed by coherent phonons,” Nat Commun3, 721 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Marvel, K. Appavoo, B. K. Choi, J. Nag, and R. F. Haglund., “Electron-beam deposition of vanadium dioxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. A, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, E. Andrew Payzant, and K. L. More, “Non-congruence of thermally driven structural and electronic transitions in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys.112(10), 103532 (2012).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J. Nag and R. F. Haglund., “Synthesis of vanadium dioxide thin films and nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(26), 264016 (2008).
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Nat Commun (2)

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. M. Quan, Y. N. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat Commun3, 846 (2012).
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S. Wall, D. Wegkamp, L. Foglia, K. Appavoo, J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, J. Stähler, and M. Wolf, “Ultrafast changes in lattice symmetry probed by coherent phonons,” Nat Commun3, 721 (2012).
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M. Bagheri, M. Poot, M. Li, W. P. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Dynamic manipulation of nanomechanical resonators in the high-amplitude regime and non-volatile mechanical memory operation,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(11), 726–732 (2011).
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J. Wei, H. Ji, W. Guo, A. H. Nevidomskyy, and D. Natelson, “Hydrogen stabilization of metallic vanadium dioxide in single-crystal nanobeams,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(6), 357–362 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

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Nature (7)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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Opt. Express (7)

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Phys. Rev. (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (5)

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Science (2)

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory Metamaterials,” Science325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
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Solid-State Electron. (1)

Y. Zhang and S. Ramanathan, “Analysis of “on” and “off” times for thermally driven VO2 metal-insulator transition nanoscale switching devices,” Solid-State Electron.62(1), 161–164 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the Si-VO2 hybrid photonic devices and all-optical experimental setup. (a) Illustration of a phase-change absorber where the SMT induces a broadband change in absorption Δα. SEM image of a typical ultra-compact Si-VO2 absorber with a 1 μm VO2 patch length. (b) Illustration of a phase-change ring resonator where the SMT induces an intracavity phase modulation Δϕ. SEM image of an ultra-compact Si-VO2 micro-ring resonator with radius R = 1.5 μm and a ~500 nm VO2 patch length. Scale bars in both SEM images correspond to 1.5 μm, approximately the probe wavelength in free space. (c) Schematic of the experimental pump-probe configuration utilized in this work. Tunable probe laser transmission is monitored with a photo-detector and oscilloscope, while nanosecond-pulsed pump light is delivered to the device through a microscope objective (MO) and two beam-splitters (B1 and B2) with power controlled by a linear polarizer (P).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized probe transmission through Si-VO2 absorbers with (a) 1 μm and (b) ~500 nm VO2 patch lengths. The pump fluence is incrementally increased over the range ~0.5-8 mJ cm−2. Inset shows a magnified view of the time response. The pump pulse is illustrated above and plotted on the same time scale. (c) Transmission through a 500 nm Si-VO2 absorber for probe wavelengths ranging from 1500 to 1600 nm, demonstrating that the SMT of VO2 can be used to realize broadband absorption modulation. Pump fluence was above threshold, ~5 mJ cm−2. Plots are vertically stacked (0.25 offset) for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical resonance in the transmission spectra for a Si-VO2 micro-ring resonator with radius R = 1.5μm. (b) Corresponding probe transmission where the probe wavelength is tuned to on-resonance (λ = 1588.5nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Saturation in the modulated probe signal is observed beyond a critical threshold fluence ~1.27 mJ cm−2. (b) Relaxation time, τM−S, for the transition from the metallic state to the initial semiconducting state as a function of pump fluence plotted for Si-VO2 absorbers and micro-ring resonators with 500 nm or 1 μm VO2 patch lengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral reconfiguration of an ultra-compact Si-VO2 micro-ring resonator. Mapped optical transmission for variable wavelength pump-probe measurements performed on a Si-VO2 micro-ring resonator (R = 1.5 μm) at a pump fluence above threshold (1.9 mJ/cm2). Right column reveals a zoomed in mapping for the same device as well as results from a Si-only control device pumped at 1.9 mJ/cm2 and 11.5 mJ/cm2. Colorbar indicates a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Analysis of Si-VO2 micro-ring resonator reconfiguration. (a) Resonant wavelength as a function of time, extracted from the variable wavelength pump-probe measurements shown in Fig. 5. The pump signal is overlaid for comparison purposes. (b) FDTD mode simulation for a hybrid Si-VO2 waveguide, with Si dimensions 220 × 500 nm and a 70 nm thick VO2 patch on top. (c) Magnitude of the resonance wavelength blue-shift Δλmax, occurring in response to photo-inducing the SMT on Si-VO2 micro-ring resonators with varying ring radii and a fixed ~500 nm VO2 patch length. Shaded region indicates the regime where Δλ < 0.3 nm, corresponding to typical thermo-optic variability of Si resonators under temperature variations ± 3°C, also equivalent to ~2 linewidths for a high Q (~104) resonator.

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