Abstract

We propose a novel, self-stabilizing optical clock pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free, asynchronous optical packets with variable lengths. The generator is based on an optical loop that includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a high-extinction spin-polarized saturable absorber (SA), with the loop being self-stabilized by balancing out the gain and absorption provided by the SOA and SA, respectively. The optical pulse train is generated by tapping out a small portion of a circulating seed pulse. The convergence of the generated pulse energy is enabled by the loop round-trip gain function that has a negative slope due to gain saturation in the SOA. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the SOA is effectively suppressed by the SA, and a backward optical pulse launched into the SOA enables overcoming the carrier-recovery speed mismatch between the SOA and SA. Without external control for the loop gain, a stable optical pulse train consisting of more than 50 pulses with low jitter is generated from a single 10-ps seed optical pulse even with a variation of 10 dB in the seed pulse intensity.

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  1. R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4468–4492 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in Proceedings of ECOC2009 (Vienna, Austria, 2009), paper PD3.2.
  4. D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the Interconnection of Two Optical Packet Rings with a Hybrid Optoelectronic Packet Router,” in Proceedings of ECOC2010 (Torino, Italy, 2010), paper PD3.5.
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, T. Nakahara, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array for high-speed asynchronous label swapping: 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(6), 692–703 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J. K. Seo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(1), 92–103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, H. Yamazaki, and R. Takahashi, “Hybrid optoelectronic buffer using CMOS memory and optical interfaces for 10-Gbit/s asynchronous variable-length optical packets,” Opt. Express18(20), 20565–20571 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, R. Urata, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “Enhanced multi-hop operation using hybrid optoelectronic router with time-to-live-based selective forward error correction,” Opt. Express19(26), B301–B307 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J. K. Seo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(1), 92–103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4468–4492 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

Kondo, N.

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, T.

Segawa, T.

Seo, J. K.

R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J. K. Seo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(1), 92–103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suemitsu, T.

Suzaki, Y.

Suzuki, H.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, T. Nakahara, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array for high-speed asynchronous label swapping: 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(6), 692–703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J. K. Seo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(1), 92–103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, R.

T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, R. Urata, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “Enhanced multi-hop operation using hybrid optoelectronic router with time-to-live-based selective forward error correction,” Opt. Express19(26), B301–B307 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, H. Yamazaki, and R. Takahashi, “Hybrid optoelectronic buffer using CMOS memory and optical interfaces for 10-Gbit/s asynchronous variable-length optical packets,” Opt. Express18(20), 20565–20571 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, T. Nakahara, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array for high-speed asynchronous label swapping: 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(6), 692–703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J. K. Seo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(1), 92–103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahata, K.

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takenouchi, H.

T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, H. Yamazaki, and R. Takahashi, “Hybrid optoelectronic buffer using CMOS memory and optical interfaces for 10-Gbit/s asynchronous variable-length optical packets,” Opt. Express18(20), 20565–20571 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urata, R.

Yamazaki, H.

Yasui, T.

R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J. K. Seo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(1), 92–103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J. K. Seo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(1), 92–103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, and H. Suzuki, “Optical clock-pulse-train generator for processing preamble-free asynchronous optical packets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1849–1851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (2)

OSA J. Opt. Netw. (1)

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, and H. Suzuki, “Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks,” OSA J. Opt. Netw.3(12), 914–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in Proceedings of ECOC2009 (Vienna, Austria, 2009), paper PD3.2.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the Interconnection of Two Optical Packet Rings with a Hybrid Optoelectronic Packet Router,” in Proceedings of ECOC2010 (Torino, Italy, 2010), paper PD3.5.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hybrid optoelectronic router architecture. AWG: arrayed waveguide grating. SPC: serial-to-parallel converter. PSC: parallel-to-serial converter. OCPTG: optical clock pulse-train generator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed SOA-SA-based pulse train generator. SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier. SA: saturable absorber. BPF: bandpass filter. PC: polarization controller. ATT: attenuator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gain as a function of input pulse energy for the (a) SOA, (c) SA, and (d) SOA followed by SA, respectively. (b) SA structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal gain profiles measured by a pump-probe technique for the (a) SOA, (b) SA, and (c) SOA followed by SA. LG: loop gain.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Temporal gain profile measured by a pump-probe technique for the SOA followed by SA. LG: loop gain. (b)-(e) Output pulse waveforms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Waveforms of generated pulse train with input pulse energy of (a) 0.032, (b) 0.1, and (c) 0.32 pJ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Oscilloscope traces taken for the (a) input pulse and (b), (c), and (d) 1st, 25th, and 50th output pulses. (e) RMS timing jitter and FWHM pulse width as a function of number of circulations. (f) Autocorrelation traces for the input pulse and output pulses. Optical spectrum of the (g) input pulse and (h) output pulse train.

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