Abstract

The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics.

© 2013 OSA

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2012

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. Aubry, D. R. Smith, S. A. Maier, “Transformation optics and subwavelength control of light,” Science 337(6094), 549–552 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, J. Renger, R. Quidant, “Transformation plasmonics,” Nanophotonic 1, 51–64 (2012).

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Dong, “Beam-scanning planar lens based on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, W. Zhu, Z. G. Dong, T. J. Cui, “Efficient manipulation of surface plasmon polariton waves in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 243110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. X. Li, S. M. Chen, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, “Highly flexible near-infrared metamaterials,” Opt. Express 20(1), 397–402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. Y. Chen, A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Moulding the flow of surface plasmons using conformal and quasiconformal mappings,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vakil, N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic design with transformation optics,” Proc. IEEE 99(10), 1622–1633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Kwon, D. H. Werner, “Transformation electromagnetic: an overview of the theory and applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52(1), 24–46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 129–132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ma, T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat Commun 1(8), 124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Cheng, T. J. Cui, W. X. Jiang, B. G. Cai, “An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 063006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Falco, M. Ploschner, T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(11), 113006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Efetov, P. Kim, “Controlling electron-phonon interactions in graphene at ultrahigh carrier densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 256805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Andersen, “Graphene-based long-wave infrared TM surface plasmon modulator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 818–822 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, “Transformational plasmonics: cloak, concentrator and rotator for SPPs,” Opt. Express 18(11), 12027–12032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, “Anisotropic metamaterial devices,” Mater. Today 12(12), 26–33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Hasegawa, J. U. Nockel, M. Deutsch, “Curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Chen, D. C. Qi, X. Y. Gao, A. T. S. Wee, “Surface transfer p-type doping of epitaxial graphene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(34), 10418–10422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aksu, S.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Altug, H.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

P. Y. Chen, A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, D. R.

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Artar, A.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubry, A.

J. B. Pendry, A. Aubry, D. R. Smith, S. A. Maier, “Transformation optics and subwavelength control of light,” Science 337(6094), 549–552 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bartal, G.

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Boudouris, B. W.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brugger, J.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, B. G.

Q. Cheng, T. J. Cui, W. X. Jiang, B. G. Cai, “An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 063006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Camara, N.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Centeno, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chandra, B.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheah, K. W.

Chen, C. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

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H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, W. Zhu, Z. G. Dong, T. J. Cui, “Efficient manipulation of surface plasmon polariton waves in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 243110 (2012).
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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
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W. Chen, S. Chen, D. C. Qi, X. Y. Gao, A. T. S. Wee, “Surface transfer p-type doping of epitaxial graphene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(34), 10418–10422 (2007).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, J. Renger, R. Quidant, “Transformation plasmonics,” Nanophotonic 1, 51–64 (2012).

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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
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S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
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M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, J. Renger, R. Quidant, “Transformation plasmonics,” Nanophotonic 1, 51–64 (2012).

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Moulding the flow of surface plasmons using conformal and quasiconformal mappings,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Q. Cheng, T. J. Cui, W. X. Jiang, B. G. Cai, “An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 063006 (2010).
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H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Dong, “Beam-scanning planar lens based on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051903 (2012).
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M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, J. Renger, R. Quidant, “Transformation plasmonics,” Nanophotonic 1, 51–64 (2012).

M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, “Transformational plasmonics: cloak, concentrator and rotator for SPPs,” Opt. Express 18(11), 12027–12032 (2010).
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W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
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D. K. Efetov, P. Kim, “Controlling electron-phonon interactions in graphene at ultrahigh carrier densities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 256805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Koschny, T.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 259–264 (2012).
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A. D. Falco, M. Ploschner, T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(11), 113006 (2010).
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N. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 129–132 (2010).
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N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic design with transformation optics,” Proc. IEEE 99(10), 1622–1633 (2011).
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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
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Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G. X.

Li, X.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
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C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, W. B.

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Dong, “Beam-scanning planar lens based on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, W. Zhu, Z. G. Dong, T. J. Cui, “Efficient manipulation of surface plasmon polariton waves in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 243110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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H. F. Ma, T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat Commun 1(8), 124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Y. G.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. B. Pendry, A. Aubry, D. R. Smith, S. A. Maier, “Transformation optics and subwavelength control of light,” Science 337(6094), 549–552 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, J. Renger, R. Quidant, “Transformation plasmonics,” Nanophotonic 1, 51–64 (2012).

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Moulding the flow of surface plasmons using conformal and quasiconformal mappings,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mikkelsen, M. H.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesterov, M. L.

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Moulding the flow of surface plasmons using conformal and quasiconformal mappings,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nockel, J. U.

K. Hasegawa, J. U. Nockel, M. Deutsch, “Curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ong, C. K.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osmond, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Park, C. H.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. Aubry, D. R. Smith, S. A. Maier, “Transformation optics and subwavelength control of light,” Science 337(6094), 549–552 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic design with transformation optics,” Proc. IEEE 99(10), 1622–1633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ploschner, M.

A. D. Falco, M. Ploschner, T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(11), 113006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pun, E. Y. B.

Qi, D. C.

W. Chen, S. Chen, D. C. Qi, X. Y. Gao, A. T. S. Wee, “Surface transfer p-type doping of epitaxial graphene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(34), 10418–10422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, J. Renger, R. Quidant, “Transformation plasmonics,” Nanophotonic 1, 51–64 (2012).

Renger, J.

M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, J. Renger, R. Quidant, “Transformation plasmonics,” Nanophotonic 1, 51–64 (2012).

Rodin, A. S.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Sannomiya, T.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savu, V.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segalman, R. A.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvarasah, S.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, A. Aubry, D. R. Smith, S. A. Maier, “Transformation optics and subwavelength control of light,” Science 337(6094), 549–552 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic design with transformation optics,” Proc. IEEE 99(10), 1622–1633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 129–132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thiemens, M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Thongrattanasiri, S.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Tosun, M.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulevski, G.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Vakil, N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vazquez-Mena, O.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voros, J.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

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C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wee, A. T. S.

W. Chen, S. Chen, D. C. Qi, X. Y. Gao, A. T. S. Wee, “Surface transfer p-type doping of epitaxial graphene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(34), 10418–10422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Wu, Y.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H. J.

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, W. Zhu, Z. G. Dong, T. J. Cui, “Efficient manipulation of surface plasmon polariton waves in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 243110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Dong, “Beam-scanning planar lens based on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
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Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhang, S.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhu, W.

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, W. Zhu, Z. G. Dong, T. J. Cui, “Efficient manipulation of surface plasmon polariton waves in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 243110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen, A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Dong, “Beam-scanning planar lens based on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Xu, W. B. Lu, W. Zhu, Z. G. Dong, T. J. Cui, “Efficient manipulation of surface plasmon polariton waves in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 243110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

D. Kwon, D. H. Werner, “Transformation electromagnetic: an overview of the theory and applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52(1), 24–46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

W. Chen, S. Chen, D. C. Qi, X. Y. Gao, A. T. S. Wee, “Surface transfer p-type doping of epitaxial graphene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(34), 10418–10422 (2007).
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J. Appl. Phys.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
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Mater. Today

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, “Anisotropic metamaterial devices,” Mater. Today 12(12), 26–33 (2009).
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Nano Lett.

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
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P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanophotonic

M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martín-Moreno, F. García-Vidal, J. Renger, R. Quidant, “Transformation plasmonics,” Nanophotonic 1, 51–64 (2012).

Nat Commun

H. F. Ma, T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat Commun 1(8), 124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kundtz, D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 129–132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
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J. B. Pendry, A. Aubry, D. R. Smith, S. A. Maier, “Transformation optics and subwavelength control of light,” Science 337(6094), 549–552 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vakil, N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The real parts of equivalent permittivity for graphene at T = 300 K and Γ = 3.3 meV. (a) μ c = 0.246 eV. (b) μ c = 0.8 eV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the SPP properties on graphene ( μ c = 0.246 eV and μ c = 0.8 eV) and silver film (with 30 nm thickness). (a) The ratio of propagation length to the SPP wavelength. (b) The lateral decay length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SPP waves on curved surfaces. (a), (b), The tangent magnetic fields H y of the SPP waves at different curvatures for 30-nm-thick silver film (a) and graphene (b). From top to bottom, the curvature radii are 1.65 µm (equal to 3 λ A g _ s p p ), 4.125 µm, , respectively in (a); and 81 nm (equal to 3 λ g _ s p p ), 202.5 nm, , respectively in (b). The inset shows the geometry of the curved slab.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bending waveguides. (a), (b), The simulation results of the 180°-bending waveguide for 30-nm-thick silver film at f = 500 THz, R1 = 1.2 µm (a) and graphene at f = 160 THz, Γ = 3.3 meV, T = 300 K, and μ c = 0.8 eV, R2 = 60 nm (b). (c), (d), The distributions of tangent magnetic fields H y on the 180°-bending area in silver (c) and graphene (d). (e), (f), (g), The simulation results of the tangent magnetic fields H y for the SPP waves of flexible SPP devices on curved graphene surfaces at f = 160 THz, Γ = 3.3 meV, T = 300 K, μ c = 0.8 eV, R3 = 55 nm, R4 = 21 nm, R5 = 33 nm, R6 = 55 nm, and R7 = 30 nm: the S-shaped waveguide (e), the spiral waveguide (f), and the curved waveguide (g).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The Y-shaped flexible waveguide. Simulation results of the tangent magnetic fields H y of SPP waves for a Y-shaped waveguide using grapheme at f = 160 THz, Γ = 3.3 meV, and T = 300 K. The graphene layer in section I is doped by μ c = 0.8 eV, which can support SPP waves; while the section II is doped by μ c = 0.4 eV, which cannot support SPP waves. L1 = 120 nm, b = 140 nm, a = 30 nm, L2 = 100 nm, L3 = 80 nm, L4 = 30 nm, and θ = 22.5 . In the side view, the half cycle of the sinusoidal function is 60 nm. (b) The Flexible Luneburg lens. The simulation results of tangent magnetic fields H y of SPP waves along the Luneburg lens based on curved graphene, where R = 130 nm and r = 40 nm.

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