Abstract

A series of LN:Mo,Zr and LN:Mo,Mg crystals with different doping concentrations were grown and their holographic properties were investigated from UV to the visible range. Each crystal allows for holographic storage from UV to the visible as LN:Mo. When the concentration of MgO is enhanced to 6.5mol%, the response time can be dramatically shortened to 0.22 s, 0.33 s, 0.37 s and 1.2 s for 351, 488, 532, and 671 nm laser, respectively. The results show that LN:Mo,Mg is a promising candidate for all-color holographic volume storage with fast response.

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(1), 72–74 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B67(2), 131–150 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, “Optical and holographic storage properties of transition metal doped lithium niobate,” RCA Rev.33, 94–109 (1972).
  5. K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. K. McMillen, T. D. Hudson, J. Wagner, and J. Singleton, “Holographic recording in specially doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Express2(12), 491–502 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, “Measurement of optically induced refractive index damage in lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.70, 631–635 (1980).
  8. T. R. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical-damage-resistant LiNbO3:Zn crystal,” Opt. Lett.15(18), 996–998 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 280–281 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fast photorefractive response and high sensitivity of Zr and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Tian, Y. Kong, S. Liu, W. Li, L. Wu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Photorefraction of molybdenum-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.37(13), 2679–2681 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Kongelnic, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.48, 2909–2947 (1969).
  15. F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. M. Rubinina, “Ultraviolet photorefraction at 325 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081908 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Kong, J. Deng, W. Zhang, J. Wen, G. Zhang, and H. Wang, “OH− absorption spectra in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Lett. A196(1-2), 128–132 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter11(9), 2139–2143 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of inorganic and organometallic compounds of molybdenum,” Inorg. Chem.14(5), 1014–1018 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 10–12 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. M. Rubinina, “Ultraviolet photorefraction at 325 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fast photorefractive response and high sensitivity of Zr and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi201(2), 253–283 (2004) (a).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter11(9), 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. McMillen, T. D. Hudson, J. Wagner, and J. Singleton, “Holographic recording in specially doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Express2(12), 491–502 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 280–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Kong, J. Deng, W. Zhang, J. Wen, G. Zhang, and H. Wang, “OH− absorption spectra in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Lett. A196(1-2), 128–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1980 (1)

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, “Measurement of optically induced refractive index damage in lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.70, 631–635 (1980).

1975 (1)

S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of inorganic and organometallic compounds of molybdenum,” Inorg. Chem.14(5), 1014–1018 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, “Optical and holographic storage properties of transition metal doped lithium niobate,” RCA Rev.33, 94–109 (1972).

1969 (1)

H. Kongelnic, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.48, 2909–2947 (1969).

1966 (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(1), 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akella, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amodei, J. J.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, “Optical and holographic storage properties of transition metal doped lithium niobate,” RCA Rev.33, 94–109 (1972).

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi201(2), 253–283 (2004) (a).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(1), 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ballman, A. A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(1), 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bo, F.

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. M. Rubinina, “Ultraviolet photorefraction at 325 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(1), 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

T. Tian, Y. Kong, S. Liu, W. Li, L. Wu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Photorefraction of molybdenum-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.37(13), 2679–2681 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fast photorefractive response and high sensitivity of Zr and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter11(9), 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

Y. Kong, J. Deng, W. Zhang, J. Wen, G. Zhang, and H. Wang, “OH− absorption spectra in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Lett. A196(1-2), 128–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(1), 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gao, G.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grim, S. O.

S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of inorganic and organometallic compounds of molybdenum,” Inorg. Chem.14(5), 1014–1018 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hang, Z.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudson, T. D.

Jian, J.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, “Measurement of optically induced refractive index damage in lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.70, 631–635 (1980).

Kip, D.

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

T. Tian, Y. Kong, S. Liu, W. Li, L. Wu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Photorefraction of molybdenum-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.37(13), 2679–2681 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xin, G. Zhang, F. Bo, H. Sun, Y. Kong, J. Xu, T. Volk, and N. M. Rubinina, “Ultraviolet photorefraction at 325 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fast photorefractive response and high sensitivity of Zr and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, W. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, “OH− absorption spectra of pure lithium niobate crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter11(9), 2139–2143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 280–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, J. Deng, W. Zhang, J. Wen, G. Zhang, and H. Wang, “OH− absorption spectra in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Lett. A196(1-2), 128–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kongelnic, H.

H. Kongelnic, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Lande, D.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levinstein, J. J.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(1), 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Li, Y.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

T. Tian, Y. Kong, S. Liu, W. Li, L. Wu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Photorefraction of molybdenum-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.37(13), 2679–2681 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fast photorefractive response and high sensitivity of Zr and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Matienzo, L. J.

S. O. Grim and L. J. Matienzo, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of inorganic and organometallic compounds of molybdenum,” Inorg. Chem.14(5), 1014–1018 (1975).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, D. K.

Nassau, K.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically-induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(1), 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlov, S. S.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, “Optical and holographic storage properties of transition metal doped lithium niobate,” RCA Rev.33, 94–109 (1972).

Pryalkin, V. I.

Psaltis, D.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubinina, N. M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The measured diffraction efficiency as a function of time for LN:Mo,Mg6.5 at various wavelength. (a), (b), (c) and (d) are for 351, 488, 532, and 671 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The photorefractive (a) diffraction efficiency, (b) response time, (c) refractive index change and (d) sensitivity of LN:Mo crystals codoped with different concentration of Zr (solid symbols) and Mg (open symbols) from UV to the visible. The light intensity per beam is 238, 400, 400, and 1500 mW/cm2 for 351, 488, 532, and 671 nm laser, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The OH Spectroscopy of LN:Mo,Zr and LN:Mo,Mg crystals with different doping level.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The normalized erasing curves of LN:Mo,Mg6.5 at 351nm. (a) and (b) are curves fitted by mono-exponential function and double-exponential functions, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The absorption difference of LN:Mo,Zr and LN:Mo,Mg relative to CLN: (a) LN:Mo,Zr and LN:Mo,Mg with various doping concentration of Zr and Mg, (b) The fitting curve of LN:Mo,Mg6.5, where the fitting trough and three peaks centered at about 316, 326, 337, and 480 nm, respectively.

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