Abstract

We demonstrate single and multi-shot Fourier transform holography with the use of a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser. The reference wave was produced by a Fresnel zone plate with a central opening that allowed the incident beam to illuminate the sample directly. The high reference wave intensity allows for larger objects to be imaged compared to mask-based lensless Fourier transform holography techniques. We obtain a spatial resolution of 169 nm from a single laser pulse and a resolution of 128 nm from an accumulation of 20 laser pulses for an object ~11x11μm2 in size. This experiment utilized a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser that produces a highly coherent ~1.2 ns laser pulse at 46.9 nm wavelength.

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2012 (5)

J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, “Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 399–410 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frömmel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Büldt, and S. Eisebitt, “Soft x-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys.14(1), 013022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, “Spectral linewidth of a Ne-like Ar capillary discharge soft-x-ray laser and its dependence on amplification beyond gain saturation,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Peterson, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, D. J. Vine, G. A. van Riessen, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. Balaur, R. Ryan, H. M. Quiney, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Nanoscale Fresnel coherent diffraction imaging tomography using ptychography,” Opt. Express20(22), 24678–24685 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Flewett, C. M. Günther, C. Schmising, B. Pfau, J. Mohanty, F. Büttner, M. Riemeier, M. Hantschmann, M. Kläui, and S. Eisebitt, “Holographically aided iterative phase retrieval,” Opt. Express20(28), 29210–29216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

T. Gorniak, R. Heine, A. P. Mancuso, F. Staier, C. Christophis, M. E. Pettitt, A. Sakdinawat, R. Treusch, N. Guerassimova, J. Feldhaus, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, S. Eisebitt, A. Beyer, A. Gölzhäuser, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, I. A. Vartanyants, and A. Rosenhahn, “X-ray holographic microscopy with zone plates applied to biological samples in the water window using 3rd harmonic radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH,” Opt. Express19(12), 11059–11070 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, S. K. Lee, J. H. Sung, J. W. Yoon, H. Yun, S. C. Jeon, I. W. Choi, and J. Lee, “Single-shot nanometer-scale holographic imaging with laser-driven x-ray laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, S. Roling, H. Zacharias, O. Kutz, I. Rudolph, D. Schondelmaier, R. Treusch, and S. Eisebitt, “Sequential femtosecond X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 99–102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, S. Schaffert, R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, S. Roling, H. Zacharias, O. Kutz, I. Rudolph, R. Treusch, and S. Eisebitt, “Femtosecond pulse x-ray imaging with a large field of view,” New J. Phys.12(9), 095006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Wu, A. Scherz, Y. Acremann, T. Tyliszczak, P. Fischer, N. Friedenberger, K. Ollefs, M. Farle, J. R. Fienup, and J. Stöhr, “High-Resolution X-Ray Lensless Imaging by Differential Holographic Encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(4), 043901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(9), 093901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, R. Tsutsumi, H. Kubo, H. Furukawa, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, N. Zettsu, E. Matsubara, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “High-resolution diffraction microscopy using the plane-wave field of a nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beam,” Phys. Rev. B80(5), 054103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Scherz, D. Zhu, R. Rick, W. F. Schlotter, S. Roy, J. Lüning, and J. Stöhr, “Nanoscale Imaging with Resonant Coherent X Rays: Extension of Multiple-Wavelength Anomalous Diffraction to Nonperiodic Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(7), 076101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

W. F. Schlotter, R. Rick, K. Chen, A. Scherz, J. Stöhr, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, C. Günther, W. Eberhardt, O. Hellwig, and I. McNulty, “Multiple reference Fourier transform holography with soft x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, C.-C. Chen, C. Song, Y. Nishino, Y. Kohmura, T. Ishikawa, D. Ramunno-Johnson, T.-K. Lee, and S. H. Risbud, “Three-Dimensional GaN-Ga2O3 Core Shell Structure Revealed by X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(21), 215503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, “Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A63(3), 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1992 (1)

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, “High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography,” Science256(5059), 1009–1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

B. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A Practical Algorithm for the Determination of Phase from Image and Diffraction Plane Pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.)35, 237–246 (1972).

Abbey, B.

I. Peterson, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, D. J. Vine, G. A. van Riessen, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. Balaur, R. Ryan, H. M. Quiney, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Nanoscale Fresnel coherent diffraction imaging tomography using ptychography,” Opt. Express20(22), 24678–24685 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Acremann, Y.

D. Zhu, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Wu, A. Scherz, Y. Acremann, T. Tyliszczak, P. Fischer, N. Friedenberger, K. Ollefs, M. Farle, J. R. Fienup, and J. Stöhr, “High-Resolution X-Ray Lensless Imaging by Differential Holographic Encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(4), 043901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, “High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography,” Science256(5059), 1009–1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, “Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A63(3), 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balaur, E.

I. Peterson, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, D. J. Vine, G. A. van Riessen, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. Balaur, R. Ryan, H. M. Quiney, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Nanoscale Fresnel coherent diffraction imaging tomography using ptychography,” Opt. Express20(22), 24678–24685 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benware, B. R.

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a High Average Power Tabletop Soft X-Ray Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(26), 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berrill, M.

L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, and J. J. Rocca, “Spectral linewidth of a Ne-like Ar capillary discharge soft-x-ray laser and its dependence on amplification beyond gain saturation,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, A.

Bogan, M. J.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, “Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 399–410 (2012).
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S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 560–563 (2008).
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D. Zhu, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Wu, A. Scherz, Y. Acremann, T. Tyliszczak, P. Fischer, N. Friedenberger, K. Ollefs, M. Farle, J. R. Fienup, and J. Stöhr, “High-Resolution X-Ray Lensless Imaging by Differential Holographic Encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(4), 043901 (2010).
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S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
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C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, S. Roling, H. Zacharias, O. Kutz, I. Rudolph, D. Schondelmaier, R. Treusch, and S. Eisebitt, “Sequential femtosecond X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 99–102 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
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Nature (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the Fourier transform holography setup. The 1st diffraction order of the Fresnel zone plate is used to create the reference wave. The central opening in the zone plate passes the incident beam directly to the sample. The reference and object waves interfere on the CCD and the object is numerically reconstructed by taking the modulus squared of the inverse Fourier transform of the interference pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM of the Siemens star object which was fabricated with a focused ion beam. The gray areas indicate the gold layer and the black areas contain no material. (b) Hologram interference pattern from an accumulation of 20-shots collected on a CCD camera. (c) The normalized intensity reconstruction obtained from the hologram in (b). (d) A characteristic knife edge cut along the blue line in (c) with 120nm resolution. The blue line was obtained by zero padding the hologram. The discrete points were obtained without any zero padding of the hologram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) EUV hologram from a single ~1.2 ns pulse exposure. The inset shows a magnified view of the interference fringes. (b) Normalized reconstruction obtained by taking the modulus squared of the inverse Fourier transform of the hologram. (c) A characteristic knife edge cut used to calculate the overall resolution of the image. This knife edge cut was taken along the blue line in (b) indicating a resolution of 167 nm. The blue line was obtained by zero padding the hologram. The discrete points were obtained without any zero padding of the hologram.

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