Abstract

In this work, we present a comparative study of two just-in-time (JIT) dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms (DBAs), designed to improve the energy-efficiency of the 10 Gbps Ethernet passive optical networks (10G-EPONs). The algorithms, termed just-in-time with varying polling cycle times (JIT) and just-in-time with fixed polling cycle times (J-FIT), are designed to achieve energy-savings when the idle time of an optical network unit (ONU) is less than the sleep-to-active transition time. This is made possible by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) ONU that can transit into sleep or doze modes during its idle time. We evaluate the performance of the algorithms in terms of polling cycle time, power consumption, percentage of energy-savings, and average delay. The energy-efficiency of a VCSEL ONU that can transition into sleep or doze mode is compared to an always-ON distributed feedback (DFB) laser ONU. Simulation results indicate that both JIT and J-FIT DBA algorithms result in improved energy-efficiency whilst J-FIT performs better in terms of energy-savings at low network loads. The J-FIT DBA however, results in increased average delay in comparison to the JIT DBA. Nonetheless, this increase in average delay is within the acceptable range to support the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the next-generation access networks.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. Y. Luo and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multi-service access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S16–S21 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S33–S38 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of Internet,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 19–26 (2003).
  4. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(13), 2391–2401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM PON,” Opt. Express20(26), B7–B14 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. ITU-T G.Supp 45, “Means and impact of GPON power saving”.
  7. T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).
  9. D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10 Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).
  10. S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).
  11. IEEE 802.3ah, “Ethernet in the first mile task force,” (2004).
  12. M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).
  13. M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Energy-efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for sleep/doze mode VC-SEL ONU,” Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics conference (ACP), ATh1D.4 (2012).
  14. M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Performance evaluation of VCSEL ONU using energy-efficient just-in-time dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm,” Proc. of Photonics Global Conference (PGC), (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Wong, M. Muller, P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).
  17. “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2011–2016.” Available: www.cisco.com .
  18. E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).
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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S33–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10 Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Luo and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multi-service access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S16–S21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of Internet,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 19–26 (2003).

2002 (1)

Afshar, P.

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

Amann, M. C.

E. Wong, M. Muller, P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).

Ansari, N.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S33–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multi-service access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S16–S21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anthapadmanabhan, N. P.

Ayre, R.

Baliga, J.

Boislaigue, R.

Chan, C. A.

Chow, H.

Dias, M. P. I.

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Performance evaluation of VCSEL ONU using energy-efficient just-in-time dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm,” Proc. of Photonics Global Conference (PGC), (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Energy-efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for sleep/doze mode VC-SEL ONU,” Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics conference (ACP), ATh1D.4 (2012).

Dias, P. I.

Dixit, S.

Dupas, A.

Farah, R.

Fiammengo, M.

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

Fujimoto, Y.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

Galaro, J.

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of Internet,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 19–26 (2003).

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(13), 2391–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirth, R.

Igawa, E.

E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).

Ji, Y.

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10 Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

Kani, J.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

Kazovsky, L. G.

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

Kramer, G.

Kubo, R.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

Kumozaki, K.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

Lau, M. F.

Li, H.

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10 Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

Lindstrom, A.

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multi-service access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S16–S21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monti, P.

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

Mukherjee, B.

Muller, M.

E. Wong, M. Muller, P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).

Nakagawa, J.

E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).

Nogami, M.

E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).

Praet, C. V.

Qua, G.

Ren, D.

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10 Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

Singh, S.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of Internet,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 19–26 (2003).

Skubic, B.

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

Smith, T.

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, W. V.

Suvakovic, D.

Torfs, G.

Tran, A. V.

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(13), 2391–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veen, D. V.

Vetter, P.

Wong, E.

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Performance evaluation of VCSEL ONU using energy-efficient just-in-time dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm,” Proc. of Photonics Global Conference (PGC), (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Wong, M. Muller, P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Energy-efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for sleep/doze mode VC-SEL ONU,” Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics conference (ACP), ATh1D.4 (2012).

M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).

Wong, S. W.

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

Wosinska, L.

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

Yamasitha, S.

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

Ye, Y.

Yen, She-Hwa

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

Yin, X.

Yoshimoto, N.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S33–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

Y. Luo and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multi-service access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S16–S21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag.43(2), S33–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. of Photonics Global Conference (PGC) (1)

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Performance evaluation of VCSEL ONU using energy-efficient just-in-time dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm,” Proc. of Photonics Global Conference (PGC), (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (1)

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content (1)

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10 Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM (1)

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of Internet,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 19–26 (2003).

Other (9)

M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).

“Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2011–2016.” Available: www.cisco.com .

E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

IEEE 802.3ah, “Ethernet in the first mile task force,” (2004).

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Energy-efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for sleep/doze mode VC-SEL ONU,” Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics conference (ACP), ATh1D.4 (2012).

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

ITU-T G.Supp 45, “Means and impact of GPON power saving”.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Traffic flow of the JIT DBA algorithm. D-Data, R-REPORT and G-GATE.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow chart of the JIT DBA algorithm executed at the OLT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flow chart of the JIT DBA algorithm executed at the ONU.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Traffic flow of the J-FIT DBA algorithm. D-Data, R-REPORT and G-GATE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polling cycle times at ONU1 of the JIT and J-FIT DBA algorithms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average polling cycle time as a function of normalized network load and polling cycle time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average power consumption per VCSEL ONU per polling cycle time as a function of normalized network load and polling cycle time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Percentage of energy-savings (η1) as a function of normalized network load and polling cycle time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average delay as a function of normalized network load and polling cycle time.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Percentage of energy-savings (η2) as a function of normalized network load and polling cycle time.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Percentage of energy-savings (η3) as a function of normalized network load and polling cycle time.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Power consumption and switching values of VCSEL ONUs

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1 Pseudocode of the J-FIT DBA algorithm executed at the OLT for N number of ONUs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Network and Protocol Parameters

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η 1 = ( 1 P vcsel , act T act + P vcsel , doze / sleep T doze / sleep P vcsel , act ( T act + T sleep / doze ) ) %
η 1 = ( 1 P vcsel , act T act + P vcsel , doze / sleep T doze / sleep P vcsel , act T fixed _ cycle ) %
η 2 = ( 1 P vcsel , act T act + P vcsel , doze / sleep T doze / sleep P DFB , act ( T act + T sleep / doze ) ) %
η 3 = ( 1 P vcsel , act T act + P vcsel , doze / sleep T doze / sleep P DFB , act T act + P DFB , doze / sleep T sleep / doze ) %

Metrics