S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode
ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber
Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

E. Wong, M. Muller, P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with
vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity
VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep
aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(2), S33–S38 (2011).

[CrossRef]

Y. Luo and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multi-service access on
EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(2), S16–S21 (2005).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Performance evaluation of VCSEL ONU using energy-efficient
just-in-time dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm,” Proc. of
Photonics Global Conference (PGC), (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Energy-efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for
sleep/doze mode VC-SEL ONU,” Proc. of Asia Communications and
Photonics conference (ACP), ATh1D.4 (2012).

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable
sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European
Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in
10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications
Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of Internet,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 19–26 (2003).

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP
networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(13), 2391–2401 (2009).

[CrossRef]

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging
protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers
and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).

[CrossRef]

E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save
Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10
Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE
International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in
10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications
Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode
ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber
Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in
10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications
Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in
10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications
Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10
Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE
International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable
sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European
Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

Y. Luo and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multi-service access on
EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(2), S16–S21 (2005).

[CrossRef]

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable
sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European
Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

E. Wong, M. Muller, P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with
vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity
VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).

E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save
Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).

E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save
Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10
Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE
International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of Internet,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 19–26 (2003).

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable
sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European
Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging
protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers
and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging
protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers
and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).

[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP
networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(13), 2391–2401 (2009).

[CrossRef]

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging
protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers
and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

E. Wong, M. Muller, P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with
vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Performance evaluation of VCSEL ONU using energy-efficient
just-in-time dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm,” Proc. of
Photonics Global Conference (PGC), (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity
VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Energy-efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for
sleep/doze mode VC-SEL ONU,” Proc. of Asia Communications and
Photonics conference (ACP), ATh1D.4 (2012).

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode
ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber
Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable
sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European
Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode
ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber
Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode
ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber
Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in
10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications
Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep
aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(2), S33–S38 (2011).

[CrossRef]

Y. Luo and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multi-service access on
EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(2), S16–S21 (2005).

[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep
aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(2), S33–S38 (2011).

[CrossRef]

E. Wong, M. Muller, P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with
vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14960–14970 (2012).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. V. Praet, H. Chow, D. Suvakovic, D. V. Veen, A. Dupas, R. Boislaigue, R. Farah, M. F. Lau, J. Galaro, G. Qua, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, G. Torfs, X. Yin, and P. Vetter, “Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM
PON,” Opt. Express 20(26), B7–B14 (2012).

[CrossRef]

T. Smith, R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, and A. V. Tran, “Implications of sleep mode on activation and ranging
protocols in PONs,” Proc. of 21st Annual meeting of the IEEE Lasers
and Electro-Optics Society, (2008).

[CrossRef]

D. Ren, H. Li, and Y. Ji, “Power saving mechanism and performance analysis for 10
Gigabit class passive optical systems,” Proc. of 2nd IEEE
International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, 920–924 (2010).

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of Internet,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 19–26 (2003).

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Performance evaluation of VCSEL ONU using energy-efficient
just-in-time dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm,” Proc. of
Photonics Global Conference (PGC), (2012).

[CrossRef]

ITU-T G.Supp 45, “Means and impact
of GPON power saving”.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive rate control for power saving in
10G-EPON systems,” Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications
Conference (GLOBECOM), (2009).

S. W. Wong, She-Hwa Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamasitha, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode
ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber
Commun. Conf. (OFC), OThW7 (2010).

IEEE 802.3ah, “Ethernet in the first
mile task force,” (2004).

M. Fiammengo, A. Lindstrom, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and B. Skubic, “Experimental evaluation of cyclic sleep with adaptable
sleep period length for PON,” Proc. of 37th European
Conference and Exhibition on Optical communication (ECOC), (2011).

M. P. I. Dias and E. Wong, “Energy-efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for
sleep/doze mode VC-SEL ONU,” Proc. of Asia Communications and
Photonics conference (ACP), ATh1D.4 (2012).

M. C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Muller, “Energy-efficient high speed short cavity
VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), OTh4F1 (2012).

“Cisco Visual Networking Index:
Forecast and Methodology, 2011–2016.” Available: www.cisco.com .

E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT Employing Dynamic Power Save
Control Circuit,”Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).