Abstract

3-D profiles of discontinuous surfaces patterned with high step structures are measured using four wavelengths generated by phase-locking to the frequency comb of an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser stabilized to the Rb atomic clock. This frequency-comb-referenced method of multi-wavelength interferometry permits extending the phase non-ambiguity range by a factor of 64,500 while maintaining the sub-wavelength measurement precision of single-wavelength interferometry. Experimental results show a repeatability of 3.13 nm (one-sigma) in measuring step heights of 1800, 500, and 70 μm. The proposed method is accurate enough for the standard calibration of gauge blocks and also fast to be suited for the industrial inspection of microelectronics products.

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2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute distance measurement using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Annals of CIRP59(1), 555–558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, B. J. Chun, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 522–527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), B51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, B. J. Chun, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “All-fiber-based optical frequency generation from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(13), 10939–10945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S.-H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging.,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(9), 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

J. D. Jost, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Continuously tunable, precise, single frequency optical signal generator,” Opt. Express10(12), 515–520 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, W.-Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B74(6), 597–601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3288–3291 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

M. Tsai, H. Huang, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Fractional fringe order method using Fourier analysis for absolute measurement of block gauge thickness,” Opt. Rev.6(5), 449–454 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(18), 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Xiaoli and S. Katuo, “High-accuracy absolute distance measurement by means of wavelength scanning heterodyne interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(7), 1031–1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, and E. Zimmermann, “High accuracy distance measurement with multiple-wavelength interferometry,” Opt. Eng.34(8), 2407–2412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Thiel, T. Pfeifer, and M. Hartmann, “Interferometric measurement of absolute distances of up to 40 m,” Measurement16(1), 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric optical metrology: basic principles and new systems,” Laser Focus18, 65–71 (1982).

Ai, C.

Bouma, B. E.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S.-H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging.,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustraan, K.

Chen, L.

R. J. Jones, W.-Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B74(6), 597–601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.-Y.

R. J. Jones, W.-Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B74(6), 597–601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

Chun, B. J.

Y.-J. Kim, B. J. Chun, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 522–527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, B. J. Chun, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “All-fiber-based optical frequency generation from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(13), 10939–10945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciddor, P. E.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

de Bonth, S.

de Groot, P.

Deck, L.

Decker, J. E.

Desjardins, A. E.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S.-H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging.,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

Diels, J.-C.

R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3288–3291 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falaggis, K.

Hall, J. L.

R. J. Jones, W.-Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B74(6), 597–601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Jost, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Continuously tunable, precise, single frequency optical signal generator,” Opt. Express10(12), 515–520 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(18), 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, M.

J. Thiel, T. Pfeifer, and M. Hartmann, “Interferometric measurement of absolute distances of up to 40 m,” Measurement16(1), 1–6 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holman, K. W.

R. J. Jones, W.-Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B74(6), 597–601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett.31(21), 3101–3103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(18), 3568–3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

M. Tsai, H. Huang, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Fractional fringe order method using Fourier analysis for absolute measurement of block gauge thickness,” Opt. Rev.6(5), 449–454 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hug, K.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, and E. Zimmermann, “High accuracy distance measurement with multiple-wavelength interferometry,” Opt. Eng.34(8), 2407–2412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hyun, S.

Y.-J. Kim, B. J. Chun, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 522–527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute distance measurement using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Annals of CIRP59(1), 555–558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(9), 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, B. J. Chun, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “All-fiber-based optical frequency generation from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(13), 10939–10945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Kim, J. Jin, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “A wide-range optical frequency generator based on the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express16(1), 258–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

M. Tsai, H. Huang, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Fractional fringe order method using Fourier analysis for absolute measurement of block gauge thickness,” Opt. Rev.6(5), 449–454 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

Jones, R. J.

R. J. Jones, W.-Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B74(6), 597–601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3288–3291 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joo, K.-N.

Jost, J. D.

Kang, C.-S.

Kasiwagi, K.

Kasuya, Y.

Katuo, S.

D. Xiaoli and S. Katuo, “High-accuracy absolute distance measurement by means of wavelength scanning heterodyne interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(7), 1031–1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, J.-A.

Kim, S.-W.

J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanomanufacturing8(1/2), 31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute distance measurement using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Annals of CIRP59(1), 555–558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, B. J. Chun, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 522–527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, B. J. Chun, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “All-fiber-based optical frequency generation from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(13), 10939–10945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(9), 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, J. Jin, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “A wide-range optical frequency generator based on the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express16(1), 258–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-N. Joo and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute distance measurement by dispersive interferometry using a femtosecond pulse laser,” Opt. Express14(13), 5954–5960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and C.-S. Kang, “Absolute length calibration of gauge blocks using optical comb of a femtosecond pulse laser,” Opt. Express14(13), 5968–5974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Oh and S.-W. Kim, “Femtosecond laser pulses for surface-profile metrology,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2650–2652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute distance measurement using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Annals of CIRP59(1), 555–558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, B. J. Chun, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 522–527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, B. J. Chun, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “All-fiber-based optical frequency generation from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(13), 10939–10945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(9), 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, J. Jin, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “A wide-range optical frequency generator based on the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express16(1), 258–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and C.-S. Kang, “Absolute length calibration of gauge blocks using optical comb of a femtosecond pulse laser,” Opt. Express14(13), 5968–5974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanomanufacturing8(1/2), 31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute distance measurement using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Annals of CIRP59(1), 555–558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, B. J. Chun, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 522–527 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, B. J. Chun, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “All-fiber-based optical frequency generation from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(13), 10939–10945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(9), 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, J. Jin, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “A wide-range optical frequency generator based on the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express16(1), 258–264 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and C.-S. Kang, “Absolute length calibration of gauge blocks using optical comb of a femtosecond pulse laser,” Opt. Express14(13), 5968–5974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kojima, S.

Kong, I.-B.

I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Jin, J. W. Kim, C.-S. Kang, J.-A. Kim, and S. Lee, “Precision depth measurement of through silicon vias (TSVs) on 3D semiconductor packaging process,” Opt. Express20(5), 5011–5016 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. J. Jones, W.-Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B74(6), 597–601 (2002).
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IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, S.-H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time FPGA processing for high-speed optical frequency domain imaging.,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(9), 1468–1472 (2009).
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Int. J. Nanomanufacturing (1)

J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanomanufacturing8(1/2), 31 (2012).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Focus (1)

J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric optical metrology: basic principles and new systems,” Laser Focus18, 65–71 (1982).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Y.-J. Kim, B. J. Chun, Y. Kim, S. Hyun, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 522–527 (2010).
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S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(9), 095302 (2009).
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D. Xiaoli and S. Katuo, “High-accuracy absolute distance measurement by means of wavelength scanning heterodyne interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(7), 1031–1035 (1998).
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J. Thiel, T. Pfeifer, and M. Hartmann, “Interferometric measurement of absolute distances of up to 40 m,” Measurement16(1), 1–6 (1995).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
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N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics5(4), 186–188 (2011).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
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Opt. Eng. (2)

I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
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Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Tsai, H. Huang, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Fractional fringe order method using Fourier analysis for absolute measurement of block gauge thickness,” Opt. Rev.6(5), 449–454 (1999).
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R. J. Jones and J.-C. Diels, “Stabilization of femtosecond lasers for optical frequency metrology and direct optical to radio frequency synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3288–3291 (2001).
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T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(18), 3568–3571 (1999).
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Other (1)

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