Abstract

We demonstrate, for the first time, time- and cost-effective replication of sub-micrometer features from a soft PDMS mold onto a bulk chalcogenide glass over a large surface area. A periodic array of sub-micrometer lines (diffraction grating) with period 625 nm, amplitude 45 nm and surface roughness 3 nm was imprinted onto the surface of the chalcogenide AsSe2 bulk glass at temperature 225°C, i.e. 5°C below the softening point of the glass. Sub-micrometer soft lithography into chalcogenide bulk glasses shows good reliability, reproducibility and promise for feasible fabrication of various dispersive optical elements, anti-reflection surfaces, 2D photonic structures and nano-structured surfaces for enhanced photonic properties and chemical sensing.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultrafast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (5)

2009 (5)

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. Dostálek, P. Adam, P. Kvasnička, O. Telezhnikova, and J. Homola, “Spectroscopy of Bragg-scattered surface plasmons for characterization of thin biomolecular films,” Opt. Lett.32(20), 2903–2905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Orava, T. Wagner, M. Krbal, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Selective wet-etching and characterization of chalcogenide thin films in inorganic alkaline solutions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1441–1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

2000 (1)

G. Dale, R. M. Langford, P. J. S. Ewen, and C. M. Reeves, “Fabrications of photonic band gap structures in As40S60 by focused ion beam milling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids266–269, 913–918 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

M. Kunugi, R. Ota, and M. Suzuki, “Viscosity of glasses in the system As-Se, As-Se-S, As-Se-Te and As-Se- Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Jpn.19(197), 145–150 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P.

Aggarwal, I.

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Arnold, C. B.

Baker, N. J.

Baro, A. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayya, S.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Benson, T. M.

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Pledel, C.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge–Te–Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brilland, L.

Bulla, D.

Bureau, B.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge–Te–Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busse, L.

Busse, L. E.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Chartier, T.

Choi, D.-Y.

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colchero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, G.

G. Dale, R. M. Langford, P. J. S. Ewen, and C. M. Reeves, “Fabrications of photonic band gap structures in As40S60 by focused ion beam milling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids266–269, 913–918 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Debbarma, S.

Desevedavy, F.

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dostálek, .

Eggleton, B. J.

Einishi, T.

Elliott, S. R.

Ewen, P. J. S.

G. Dale, R. M. Langford, P. J. S. Ewen, and C. M. Reeves, “Fabrications of photonic band gap structures in As40S60 by focused ion beam milling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids266–269, 913–918 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge–Te–Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fatome, J.

Fernández, R.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finot, C.

Finsterbusch, K.

Florea, C.

Fortier, C.

Frumar, M.

J. Orava, T. Wagner, M. Krbal, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Selective wet-etching and characterization of chalcogenide thin films in inorganic alkaline solutions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1441–1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Fudouzi, H.

Fukumi, K.

Furniss, D.

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gadret, G.

Geliesen, W.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge–Te–Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gholipour, B.

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultrafast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Göbel, O. F.

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gómez-Herrero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez-Rodríguez, J. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greer, A. L.

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultrafast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orava, T. Kohoutek, A. L. Greer, and H. Fudouzi, “Soft imprint lithography of a bulk chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 796–802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

Hewak, D. W.

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultrafast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

Horcas, I.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houizot, P.

Hughes, M. A.

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

Kaakkunen, J. J. J.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, H.

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

Khan, S. U.

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

Kohoutek, T.

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

J. Orava, T. Kohoutek, A. L. Greer, and H. Fudouzi, “Soft imprint lithography of a bulk chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 796–802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orava, T. Wagner, M. Krbal, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Selective wet-etching and characterization of chalcogenide thin films in inorganic alkaline solutions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1441–1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krbal, M.

J. Orava, T. Wagner, M. Krbal, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Selective wet-etching and characterization of chalcogenide thin films in inorganic alkaline solutions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1441–1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Kunugi, M.

M. Kunugi, R. Ota, and M. Suzuki, “Viscosity of glasses in the system As-Se, As-Se-S, As-Se-Te and As-Se- Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Jpn.19(197), 145–150 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kvasnicka, P.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Langford, R. M.

G. Dale, R. M. Langford, P. J. S. Ewen, and C. M. Reeves, “Fabrications of photonic band gap structures in As40S60 by focused ion beam milling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids266–269, 913–918 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lehmuskero, A.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lian, Z. G.

Loni, A.

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge–Te–Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Maeda, R.

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

Maurugeon, S.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge–Te–Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Messaad, K.

Miklos, F.

Miller, C. A.

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misumi, T.

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

Moshchalkov, V. V.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

Murakoshi, Y.

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Nguyen, T. N.

Nguyen, V.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Nishii, J.

Ohishi, Y.

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

Orava, J.

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultrafast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orava, T. Kohoutek, A. L. Greer, and H. Fudouzi, “Soft imprint lithography of a bulk chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 796–802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orava, T. Wagner, M. Krbal, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Selective wet-etching and characterization of chalcogenide thin films in inorganic alkaline solutions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1441–1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ota, R.

M. Kunugi, R. Ota, and M. Suzuki, “Viscosity of glasses in the system As-Se, As-Se-S, As-Se-Te and As-Se- Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Jpn.19(197), 145–150 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Paivasaari, K.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

Pan, W. J.

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitois, S.

Pureza, P.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Qin, D.

D. Qin, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning,” Nat. Protoc.5(3), 491–502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, C. M.

G. Dale, R. M. Langford, P. J. S. Ewen, and C. M. Reeves, “Fabrications of photonic band gap structures in As40S60 by focused ion beam milling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids266–269, 913–918 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Renversez, G.

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Rowe, H.

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, C. J.

Saito, M.

Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Schift, H.

H. Schift, “Nanoimprint lithography: an old story in modern times? A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(2), 458–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shan, X. C.

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, B.

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Silvennoinen, M.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

Smith, C. E.

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultrafast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, L.

Suzuki, M.

M. Kunugi, R. Ota, and M. Suzuki, “Viscosity of glasses in the system As-Se, As-Se-S, As-Se-Te and As-Se- Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Jpn.19(197), 145–150 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tani, K.

Telezhnikova, O.

ten Elshof, J. E.

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thielen, P.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

Tikhomirov, V. K.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Traynor, N.

Troles, J.

Tsay, C.

Vahimaa, P.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vlcek, M.

J. Orava, T. Wagner, M. Krbal, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Selective wet-etching and characterization of chalcogenide thin films in inorganic alkaline solutions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1441–1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, T.

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orava, T. Wagner, M. Krbal, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Selective wet-etching and characterization of chalcogenide thin films in inorganic alkaline solutions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1441–1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. Qin, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning,” Nat. Protoc.5(3), 491–502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

D. Qin, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning,” Nat. Protoc.5(3), 491–502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, I.

Yamashita, N.

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zha, Y.

Zhang, X.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge–Te–Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge–Te–Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed feature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1302–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Orava, T. Wagner, M. Krbal, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “Selective wet-etching and characterization of chalcogenide thin films in inorganic alkaline solutions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids353(13-15), 1441–1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dale, R. M. Langford, P. J. S. Ewen, and C. M. Reeves, “Fabrications of photonic band gap structures in As40S60 by focused ion beam milling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids266–269, 913–918 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys. (1)

T. Kohoutek, M. A. Hughes, J. Orava, H. Kawashima, T. Misumi, M. Matsumoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Direct laser writing of relief diffraction gratings into bulk chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B: Opt. Phys.29, 2279–2286 (2012).

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.3, 627–640 (2001).

J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Jpn. (1)

M. Kunugi, R. Ota, and M. Suzuki, “Viscosity of glasses in the system As-Se, As-Se-S, As-Se-Te and As-Se- Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Jpn.19(197), 145–150 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Schift, “Nanoimprint lithography: an old story in modern times? A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(2), 458–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Orava, A. L. Greer, B. Gholipour, D. W. Hewak, and C. E. Smith, “Characterization of supercooled liquid Ge2Sb2Te5 and its crystallization by ultrafast-heating calorimetry,” Nat. Mater.11(4), 279–283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Nat. Protoc. (1)

D. Qin, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning,” Nat. Protoc.5(3), 491–502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. E. Pollard, K. J. Knight, G. J. Parker, D. W. Hewak, and M. D. B. Charlton, “Fabrication of photonic crystals in rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass films for enhanced upconversion,” Proc. SPIE 8257, Optical Components and Materials IX, 82570V.

Z. U. Borisova, Glassy Semiconductors (Plenum, 1981).

S. J. Madden, T. Han, D. A. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davis, “Low loss chalcogenide glass waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, San Diego, California, March 21, 2010, p. OMH3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature history of the AsSe2 glass, during three-step low-load soft imprinting (see text for details).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The dependence of AsxSe100−x supercooled liquid shear viscosity on temperature. The lines are guides for the eye only. The dashed lines, in the inset figure, correspond to the composition AsSe2. The data are from [30].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM topography images showing (a) the PDMS mold and (b) the imprinted AsSe2 glass. The inset figures show the surface profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The transmittance of a plain, as-prepared glass disk, a glass disk annealed at T = 225°C, and a glass disk imprinted at Timp = 225°C. No apparent increase in the level of impurities (change in IR absorption) or glass crystallization (change in transmittance or shift in short wavelength absorption edge) caused by imprinting process were observed. The disks are ~2 mm thick.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the relative intensities of TM and TE modes measured for first-order diffraction with the beam at normal incidence on the sample.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Light dispersion from an imprinted AsSe2 glass grating was calculated for the first-order diffraction and compared with measured data (Fig. 5). The grating period d = 625 nm was taken in the calculation, corresponding to the average value according to AFM. The diffraction angle Φr is that between the incident beam and the detector axis.

Metrics