Abstract

We explore a new class of Distributed Feedback (DFB) and Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) structures that employ the recently-developed concept of Parity-Time (PT) symmetry in optics. The approach is based on using so-called unidirectional Bragg gratings that are non diffractive (transparent) when illuminated from one side and diffracting (Bragg reflection) when illuminated from the other side, thus providing a uni-directional Bragg functionality. Such unusual property is achieved through diffraction through a grating having periodic variations in both, phase and amplitude. DFB and DBR structures traditionally consist of a gain medium and reflector(s) made via periodic variation of the (gain media) refractive index in the direction of propagation. As such structures are produced in a gain material. It becomes just possible to add periodic amplitude modulation in order to produce the unidirectional Bragg functionality. We propose here new and unique DFB and DBR structures by concatenating two such unidirectional Bragg gratings with their nonreflective ends oriented outwards the cavity. We analyze the transmission and reflection properties of these new structures through a transfer matrix approach. One of the unique characteristics of the structure is that it inherently supports only one lasing mode.

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  1. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Simulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 152–154 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled‐wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Kapon, A. Hardy, and A. Katzir, “The effect of complex coupling coefficients on distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(1), 66–71 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Cardimona, M. P. Sharma, V. Kovanis, and A. Gavrielides, “Dephased index and gain coupling in distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE Quantum Electron.31(1), 60–66 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Poladian, “Resonance mode expansions and exact solutions for nonuniform gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics54(3), 2963–2975 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. K. G. Markis, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “PT-symmetric periodical optical potentials,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.50(4), 1019–1041 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(21), 213901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Markis, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “PT-symmetric periodical optical potentials,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.50(4), 1019–1041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

1998 (1)

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non- Hermitian Hamiltinian having PT Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. Tamura and M. Nakazawa, “Pulse compression by nonlinear pulse evolution with reduced optical wave breaking in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.21(1), 68–70 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poladian, “Resonance mode expansions and exact solutions for nonuniform gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics54(3), 2963–2975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

D. A. Cardimona, M. P. Sharma, V. Kovanis, and A. Gavrielides, “Dephased index and gain coupling in distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE Quantum Electron.31(1), 60–66 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

E. Kapon, A. Hardy, and A. Katzir, “The effect of complex coupling coefficients on distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(1), 66–71 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled‐wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Simulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Azaña, J.

Bélanger, N.

Bender, C. M.

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non- Hermitian Hamiltinian having PT Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S.

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non- Hermitian Hamiltinian having PT Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(21), 213901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardimona, D. A.

D. A. Cardimona, M. P. Sharma, V. Kovanis, and A. Gavrielides, “Dephased index and gain coupling in distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE Quantum Electron.31(1), 60–66 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

K. G. Markis, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “PT-symmetric periodical optical potentials,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.50(4), 1019–1041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(21), 213901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichelkraut, T.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(21), 213901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Ganainy, R.

K. G. Markis, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “PT-symmetric periodical optical potentials,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.50(4), 1019–1041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gavrielides, A.

D. A. Cardimona, M. P. Sharma, V. Kovanis, and A. Gavrielides, “Dephased index and gain coupling in distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE Quantum Electron.31(1), 60–66 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A.

E. Kapon, A. Hardy, and A. Katzir, “The effect of complex coupling coefficients on distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(1), 66–71 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

E. Kapon, A. Hardy, and A. Katzir, “The effect of complex coupling coefficients on distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(1), 66–71 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

E. Kapon, A. Hardy, and A. Katzir, “The effect of complex coupling coefficients on distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(1), 66–71 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled‐wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Simulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kottos, T.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(21), 213901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovanis, V.

D. A. Cardimona, M. P. Sharma, V. Kovanis, and A. Gavrielides, “Dephased index and gain coupling in distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE Quantum Electron.31(1), 60–66 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kulishov, M.

Laniel, J. M.

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(21), 213901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markis, K. G.

K. G. Markis, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “PT-symmetric periodical optical potentials,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.50(4), 1019–1041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Musslimani, Z. H.

K. G. Markis, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “PT-symmetric periodical optical potentials,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.50(4), 1019–1041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Plant, D. V.

Poladian, L.

L. Poladian, “Resonance mode expansions and exact solutions for nonuniform gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics54(3), 2963–2975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramezani, H.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(21), 213901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled‐wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Simulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, M. P.

D. A. Cardimona, M. P. Sharma, V. Kovanis, and A. Gavrielides, “Dephased index and gain coupling in distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE Quantum Electron.31(1), 60–66 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Simulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Kapon, A. Hardy, and A. Katzir, “The effect of complex coupling coefficients on distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(1), 66–71 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Cardimona, M. P. Sharma, V. Kovanis, and A. Gavrielides, “Dephased index and gain coupling in distributed feedback lasres,” IEEE Quantum Electron.31(1), 60–66 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Theor. Phys. (1)

K. G. Markis, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “PT-symmetric periodical optical potentials,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.50(4), 1019–1041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled‐wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

L. Poladian, “Resonance mode expansions and exact solutions for nonuniform gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics54(3), 2963–2975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(21), 213901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non- Hermitian Hamiltinian having PT Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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