Abstract

We numerically simulated the air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber induced by femtosecond laser filaments for different chopping rates. A two dimensional model was employed, where the laser filaments were treated as a heat flux source. The simulated patterns of flow fields and maximum velocity of updraft compare well with the experimental results for the chopping rates of 1, 5, 15 and 150 Hz. A quantitative inconsistency appears between simulated and experimental maximum velocity of updraft for 1 kHz repetition rate although a similar pattern of flow field is obtained, and the possible reasons were analyzed. Based on the present simulated results, the experimental observation of more water condensation/snow at higher chopping rate can be explained. These results indicate that the specific way of laser filament heating plays a significant role in the laser-induced motion of air flow, and at the same time, our previous conclusion of air flow having an important effect on water condensation/snow is confirmed.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Stratmann, M. Wilck, V. Ždímal, and J. Smolík, “2-D model for the description of thermal diffusion cloud chambers: description and first results,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(47), 11641–11648 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, C. Liu, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Expansion and radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.59(1), 343–347 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J.-P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(24), 243902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors (Basel)11(1), 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-based weather control,” Opt. Photon. News21(7), 22–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, C. Liu, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Expansion and radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.59(1), 343–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun.202(1–3), 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Taha and Z. F. Cui, “CFD modelling of gas-sparged ultrafiltration in tubular membranes,” J. Membr. Sci.210(1), 13–27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Visible pulse compression to 4 fs by optical parametric amplification and programmable dispersion control,” Opt. Lett.27(5), 306–308 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

F. Stratmann, M. Wilck, V. Ždímal, and J. Smolík, “2-D model for the description of thermal diffusion cloud chambers: description and first results,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(47), 11641–11648 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett.20(1), 73–75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

D. W. James, “The thermal diffusivity of ice and water between −40 and +60°C,” J. Mater. Sci.3(5), 540–543 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun.202(1–3), 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azarm, A.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun.202(1–3), 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Béjot, P.

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J.-P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(24), 243902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, J.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun.202(1–3), 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

Charlson, R. J.

F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun.202(1–3), 189–197 (2002).
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Ge, X.

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J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
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S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, C. Liu, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Expansion and radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.59(1), 343–347 (2007).
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Hao, Z.

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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
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Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
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Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021108 (2010).
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P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J.-P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(24), 243902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
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Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
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James, D. W.

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Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
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Ju, J.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamali, Y.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 304–306 (1997).
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P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J.-P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(24), 243902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
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J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-based weather control,” Opt. Photon. News21(7), 22–27 (2010).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 877–879 (2000).
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S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
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F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
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Kobayashi, T.

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 304–306 (1997).
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Kum, C.

S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
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Lascoux, N.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lavorel, B.

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J.-P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(24), 243902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
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J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
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J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
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Li, Y.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
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H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
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Li, Y. T.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, C. Liu, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Expansion and radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.59(1), 343–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun.202(1–3), 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Loriot, V.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
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P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 143901 (2009).
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J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
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S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, C. Liu, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Expansion and radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.59(1), 343–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
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Murnane, M. M.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 143901 (2009).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
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S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
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S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
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Peng, X. Y.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
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W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun.202(1–3), 189–197 (2002).
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Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
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Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021108 (2010).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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Pohl, T.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Queißer, M.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
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P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, C. Liu, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Expansion and radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.59(1), 343–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Salmon, E.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
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F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
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Schneider, F.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. J.

S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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F. Stratmann, M. Wilck, V. Ždímal, and J. Smolík, “2-D model for the description of thermal diffusion cloud chambers: description and first results,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(47), 11641–11648 (2001).
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Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, B.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Stratmann, M. Wilck, V. Ždímal, and J. Smolík, “2-D model for the description of thermal diffusion cloud chambers: description and first results,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(47), 11641–11648 (2001).
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J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
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T. Taha and Z. F. Cui, “CFD modelling of gas-sparged ultrafiltration in tubular membranes,” J. Membr. Sci.210(1), 13–27 (2002).
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Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
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P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N. L.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. Y.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wedekind, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, S.-B.

S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, C. Liu, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Expansion and radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.59(1), 343–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wendisch, M.

F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wex, H.

F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilck, M.

F. Stratmann, M. Wilck, V. Ždímal, and J. Smolík, “2-D model for the description of thermal diffusion cloud chambers: description and first results,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(47), 11641–11648 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J.-P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(24), 243902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-based weather control,” Opt. Photon. News21(7), 22–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-based weather control,” Opt. Photon. News21(7), 22–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wurzler, S.

F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. L.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.-L.

H.-L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors (Basel)11(1), 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Q. Z.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. I.

S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ždímal, V.

F. Stratmann, M. Wilck, V. Ždímal, and J. Smolík, “2-D model for the description of thermal diffusion cloud chambers: description and first results,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(47), 11641–11648 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. Y.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziener, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Effects of initial humidity and temperature on laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation,” Appl. Phys. B110(3), 375–380 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Yun, K.-D. Oh, K.-S. Ryu, C.-G. Kim, H. L. Park, H. J. Seo, and C. Kum, “Photothermal probe beam deflection measurement of thermal diffusivity of atmospheric air,” Appl. Phys. B40(2), 95–98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, L. Wöste, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, and K. Weber, “Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(4), 041105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Front. Phys. (1)

J. Yu, Q. Ma, V. Motto-Ros, W. Lei, X. Wang, and X. Bai, “Generation and expansion of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic emission source,” Front. Phys.7(6), 649–669 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt, “Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic supersaturation conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(6), 876–887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

D. W. James, “The thermal diffusivity of ice and water between −40 and +60°C,” J. Mater. Sci.3(5), 540–543 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Membr. Sci. (1)

T. Taha and Z. F. Cui, “CFD modelling of gas-sparged ultrafiltration in tubular membranes,” J. Membr. Sci.210(1), 13–27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

F. Stratmann, M. Wilck, V. Ždímal, and J. Smolík, “2-D model for the description of thermal diffusion cloud chambers: description and first results,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(47), 11641–11648 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, C. Liu, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Expansion and radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.59(1), 343–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun.2, 456 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun.202(1–3), 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-based weather control,” Opt. Photon. News21(7), 22–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X. Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z. Y. Zheng, and Q. Z. Yu, “Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E. (1)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Long plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E.65(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J.-P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(24), 243902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

H.-L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors (Basel)11(1), 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B. J. Mason, Clouds, Rains & Rainmaking, 2th ed. (Cambridge University, 1975), Chap. 1.

W. Tao, Numerical Heat Transfer, 2th ed. (Xi'an Jiaotong University, 2001), Chap. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Video frames captured for side Mie scattering by the laser filamentation-induced water condensation when the repetitive chopping rate of the femtosecond pulse trains was set at 1 Hz (a), 15 Hz (b), and 1 kHz (c), respectively. The arrow lines, red ellipses, yellow elliptic-like and triangular-like shapes, and red rectangles in figures are artificially created guided lines/areas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketched map of calculated cross section. The short red line above the bottom of the cloud chamber represents the heat flux source induced by the laser filament.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated flow fields for chopping rate of 1 Hz (a), 15 Hz (b) and 1 kHz (c), respectively. The velocity vectors are colored by velocity magnitude (m/s). The rectangular areas in (a)–(c) have the same size as the experimentally captured images as shown in Figs. 1(a)1(c), respectively, and the insets on the top are their corresponding enlarged figures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of theoretical (black line with circle and blue line with triangle symbols) and experimental (red line with square symbols) maximum velocities of updraft on chopping rates. The experimental data are from [22], and the error bars indicate the variability within the measurements. The theoretical data shown by black line with circle and blue line with triangle symbols indicates the maximum velocities of updraft in the entire cloud chamber and insets in Figs. 3(a)3(c), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dependences of area weighted average temperature of laser filament zone on time. Red, blue and black lines show the calculated results with the heat fluxes of each laser pulse: 2 × 104 W/m2 at 1kHz repetition rate, 2 × 104 W/m2 at 2 kHz repetition rate, and 1 × 104 W/m2 at 2 kHz repetition rate, respectively. (b) Decay of area weighted average temperature of laser filament zone on time after one pulse irradiation with the heat flux of 2 × 104 W/m2. The horizontal dashed line indicates the ambient temperature of ~244 K without laser irradiation which is from [29].

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t (ρ)+( ρ u )=0,
(ρh) t +(ρ u h)=q
q=(λT)+S
h= c p T,
(ρu) t +(ρ u u)=( μu ) p x V x
(ρv) t +(ρ u v)=( μv ) p y V y +ρg.

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