Abstract

For a direct-detection 3D imaging lidar, the use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) could greatly enhance the detection sensitivity of the lidar system since each range measurement requires a single detected photon. Furthermore, Gm-APD offers significant advantages in reducing the size, mass, power and complexity of the system. However the inevitable noise, including the background noise, the dark count noise and so on, remains a significant challenge to obtain a clear 3D image of the target of interest. This paper presents a smart strategy, which can filter out false alarms in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data and obtain a clear 3D image in real time. As a result, a clear 3D image is taken from the experimental system despite the background noise of the sunny day.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

L. A. Magruder, M. E. Wharton, K. D. Stout, and A. L. Neuenschwander, “Noise filtering techniques for photon-counting LIDAR data,” Proc. SPIE8379, 83790Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(2), 026601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, and G. S. Buller, “Resolving range ambiguity in a photon counting depth imager operating at kilometer distances,” Opt. Express18(9), 9192–9206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, and E. A. Watson, “Three dimensional object recognition with photon counting imagery in the presence of noise,” Opt. Express18(25), 26450–26460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

P. Cho, H. Anderson, R. Hatch, and P. Ramaswami, “Real-time 3D lidar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.16, 147–164 (2006).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

1997 (1)

Anderson, H.

P. Cho, H. Anderson, R. Hatch, and P. Ramaswami, “Real-time 3D lidar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.16, 147–164 (2006).

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

Bai, X. G.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boisvert, J.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

Cho, P.

P. Cho, H. Anderson, R. Hatch, and P. Ramaswami, “Real-time 3D lidar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.16, 147–164 (2006).

Collins, R. J.

DaneshPanah, M.

Daniels, P. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

Danny, H.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fancey, S. J.

Felton, B. H.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

Fernández, V.

Fouche, D. G.

Gaalema, S.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hatch, R.

P. Cho, H. Anderson, R. Hatch, and P. Ramaswami, “Real-time 3D lidar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.16, 147–164 (2006).

Heinrichs, R. M.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

Hong, D. H.

M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(2), 026601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jo, S. E.

Kim, B. W.

M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(2), 026601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. H.

H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, S. E. Jo, and M. S. Oh, “Smart three-dimensional imaging LADAR using two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express19(20), 19323–19329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(2), 026601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H. J.

H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, S. E. Jo, and M. S. Oh, “Smart three-dimensional imaging LADAR using two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express19(20), 19323–19329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(2), 026601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krichel, N. J.

Labios, E.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landers, D. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

Loomis, A. H.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

Magruder, L. A.

L. A. Magruder, M. E. Wharton, K. D. Stout, and A. L. Neuenschwander, “Noise filtering techniques for photon-counting LIDAR data,” Proc. SPIE8379, 83790Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

Massa, J. S.

McCarthy, A.

McDonald, P.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neuenschwander, A. L.

L. A. Magruder, M. E. Wharton, K. D. Stout, and A. L. Neuenschwander, “Noise filtering techniques for photon-counting LIDAR data,” Proc. SPIE8379, 83790Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. S.

H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, S. E. Jo, and M. S. Oh, “Smart three-dimensional imaging LADAR using two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express19(20), 19323–19329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(2), 026601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(2), 026601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pauls, G.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Portillo, A. A.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswami, P.

P. Cho, H. Anderson, R. Hatch, and P. Ramaswami, “Real-time 3D lidar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.16, 147–164 (2006).

Roybal, A. B.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salisbury, M. S.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stout, K. D.

L. A. Magruder, M. E. Wharton, K. D. Stout, and A. L. Neuenschwander, “Noise filtering techniques for photon-counting LIDAR data,” Proc. SPIE8379, 83790Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, G. M.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sudharsanan, R.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, S.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

Wallace, A. M.

Watson, E. A.

Wharton, M. E.

L. A. Magruder, M. E. Wharton, K. D. Stout, and A. L. Neuenschwander, “Noise filtering techniques for photon-counting LIDAR data,” Proc. SPIE8379, 83790Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

Yuan, P.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(2), 026601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln Lab. J. (2)

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.13(2), 335–350 (2002).

P. Cho, H. Anderson, R. Hatch, and P. Ramaswami, “Real-time 3D lidar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J.16, 147–164 (2006).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, X. G. Bai, J. Boisvert, P. McDonald, E. Labios, M. S. Salisbury, G. M. Stuart, H. Danny, A. A. Portillo, A. B. Roybal, S. Van Duyne, G. Pauls, and S. Gaalema, “32 x 32 Geiger-mode LADAR cameras,” Proc. SPIE7684, 76840C (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Magruder, M. E. Wharton, K. D. Stout, and A. L. Neuenschwander, “Noise filtering techniques for photon-counting LIDAR data,” Proc. SPIE8379, 83790Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

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