Abstract

We have developed a widely tunable mid-infrared difference frequency generation (DFG) source by mixing ∼ 1 W Ti:sapphire laser and 6 W Nd:YAG laser beams in a 50-mm MgO-doped long periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN). The power of the DFG source is > 2 mW over the tuning range of 2.66–4.77 μm and its free-running linewidth is about 100 kHz. Combining various frequency stabilisation schemes for the Nd:YAG laser and the Ti:sapphire laser, the DFG frequency can be precisely controlled. Besides, its frequency can be determined better than 12 kHz by measuring the Ti:sapphire laser frequency using an optical frequency comb. Two high resolution spectroscopic studies on 12C16O2 molecule are demonstrated using this DFG source. The saturation spectra of R(18) and R(60) transitions of 0001 ← 0000 fundamental band at 4.2 μm and P(20) transition of [1001, 0201]I ← 0000 band at 2.7 μm have been observed and their absolute transition frequencies are measured with an accuracy better than 30 kHz.

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    [CrossRef]
  25. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.69, 327–332 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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  30. A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.146, 161–168 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012 (4)

2011 (3)

S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express19, 23878–23888 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lien, K.-J. Lo, H.-C. Chen, J.-R. Chen, J.-Y. Tian, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Absolute frequencies of the 6,7Li 2S 2S1/2 → 3S 2S1/2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Fan, T.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

M. F. Witinski, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “Pump-enhanced difference-frequency generation at 3.3 μm,” Appl. Opt.48, 2600–2606 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express17, 9582–9587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A80, 032518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

H.-M. Fang, S.-C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56) 32–0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.257, 76–83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia40, 103–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Y. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. H¨ansch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. H¨ansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 242–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.146, 161–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

Asobe, M.

Bagayev, S. N.

A. Y. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. H¨ansch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

Bartalini, S.

Bayer-Helms, F.

F. Bayer-Helms and J. Helmcke, “Modulation broadening of spectral profiles,” in PTB-Me-17, PTB-Bericht, pp. 85–109 (PTB, 1977).

Borri, S.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ti:sapphire laser intracavity difference-frequency generation of 30 mW cw radiation around 4.5μm,” Opt. Lett.35, 3616–3618 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 110801 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borsutzky, A.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Brand, H.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng.49, 111102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-C.

H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, W.-J. Ting, S.-T. Lin, and J.-T. Shy, “Saturation spectroscopy of CO2 and frequency stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator at 2.77 μm,” Opt. Lett.37, 2409–2411 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lien, K.-J. Lo, H.-C. Chen, J.-R. Chen, J.-Y. Tian, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Absolute frequencies of the 6,7Li 2S 2S1/2 → 3S 2S1/2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-R.

Y.-H. Lien, K.-J. Lo, H.-C. Chen, J.-R. Chen, J.-Y. Tian, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Absolute frequencies of the 6,7Li 2S 2S1/2 → 3S 2S1/2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-L.

I. Fan, T.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-C.

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chou, J.-T. Shy, and T.-C. Yen, “Saturated 4.3-μm fluorescence frequency stabilization of a sequence-band CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett.17, 967–969 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, H.-C.

Crabtree, K. N.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. I. I. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.551, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

Della, V. G.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 4th ed. (Springer, 2008), vol. 1, p. 297.

Duarte, F. J.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, R.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Engler, H.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 242–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Evenson, K. M.

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, I.

I. Fan, T.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.-M.

H.-M. Fang, S.-C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56) 32–0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.257, 76–83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

D. S. Hum and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phasematching,” C. R. Physique8, 180–198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Field, S. J.

Fried, A.

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Express15, 564–571 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galli, I.

Gianella, M.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

Godard, A.

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 μm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Physique8, 1100–1128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goddon, D.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.146, 161–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 242–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Groh, A.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.146, 161–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H¨ansch, T. W.

A. Y. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. H¨ansch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. H¨ansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hein, J.

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S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express19, 23878–23888 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Schneidmiller, E.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Schünemann, U.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 242–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J.-T.

H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, W.-J. Ting, S.-T. Lin, and J.-T. Shy, “Saturation spectroscopy of CO2 and frequency stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator at 2.77 μm,” Opt. Lett.37, 2409–2411 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fan, T.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Lien, K.-J. Lo, H.-C. Chen, J.-R. Chen, J.-Y. Tian, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Absolute frequencies of the 6,7Li 2S 2S1/2 → 3S 2S1/2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liao, K.-Y. Wu, Y.-H. Lien, H. Knöckel, H.-C. Chui, E. Tiemann, and J.-T. Shy, “Precise frequency measurements of 127I2 lines in the wavelength region 750–780 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27, 1208–1214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Fang, S.-C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56) 32–0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.257, 76–83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chou, J.-T. Shy, and T.-C. Yen, “Saturated 4.3-μm fluorescence frequency stabilization of a sequence-band CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett.17, 967–969 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigrist, M. W.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Siller, B. M.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. I. I. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.551, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Porambo, B. M. Siller, J. M. Pearson, and B. J. McCall, “Broadly tunable mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometer,” Opt. Lett.37, 4422–4424 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, P.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Skvortsov, M. N.

A. Y. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. H¨ansch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, S.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

Takahata, K.

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A80, 032518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.-Y.

Y.-H. Lien, K.-J. Lo, H.-C. Chen, J.-R. Chen, J.-Y. Tian, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Absolute frequencies of the 6,7Li 2S 2S1/2 → 3S 2S1/2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, E.

Ting, W.-J.

Tittel, F. K.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tommasi, E. D.

Udem, T.

A. Y. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. H¨ansch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. H¨ansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.146, 161–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

von Zanthier, J.

A. Y. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. H¨ansch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W¨achter, H.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Walega, J. G.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

A. Y. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. H¨ansch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-C.

H.-M. Fang, S.-C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56) 32–0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.257, 76–83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weibring, P.

Weidemüller, M.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 242–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B. P.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Witinski, M. F.

Wu, K.-Y.

Yen, T.-C.

Yurkov, M.

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

Zielonkowski, M.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 242–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, W.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.146, 161–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zink, L. R.

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J.-J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (2)

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.75, 281–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Physique (2)

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 μm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Physique8, 1100–1128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hum and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phasematching,” C. R. Physique8, 180–198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. I. I. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.551, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2)

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.146, 161–168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Metrologia (1)

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia40, 103–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. Y. Nevsky, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. H¨ansch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, H. Schnatz, F. Riehle, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, “Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.192, 263–272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. H¨ansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Fang, S.-C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56) 32–0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun.257, 76–83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng.49, 111102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A80, 032518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Lien, K.-J. Lo, H.-C. Chen, J.-R. Chen, J.-Y. Tian, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Absolute frequencies of the 6,7Li 2S 2S1/2 → 3S 2S1/2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Fan, T.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 042504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 110801 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 242–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

F. Bayer-Helms and J. Helmcke, “Modulation broadening of spectral profiles,” in PTB-Me-17, PTB-Bericht, pp. 85–109 (PTB, 1977).

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 4th ed. (Springer, 2008), vol. 1, p. 297.

Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds. Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2003), vol. 89.
[CrossRef]

O. Svelto, S. Longhi, V. G. Della, G. Huber, S. Kück, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, T. Kusserow, R. Engelbrecht, F. Rohlfing, J. Kaiser, R. Malz, G. Marowsky, K. Mann, P. Simon, C. K. Rhodes, F. J. Duarte, A. Borsutzky, J. A. Lhuillier, M. W. Sigrist, H. W¨achter, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, R. Sauerbrey, J. Hein, M. Gianella, J. Helmcke, K. Midorikawa, F. Riehle, S. Steinberg, and H. Brand, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 641–1046.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic layout of the DFG source. OI: optical isolator. HWP: half wave plate. PBS: polarisation beam splitter. BS: beam splitter. PD: photodetector. IM: a mirror on indexing mount. BD: beam dump. Yb FA: Yb optical fibre amplifier. ML: mode-matching lens. DM: dichroic mirror. Ge filter: a germanium plate at Brewster angle. F-P: highly stable Fabry-Pérot cavity. InSb: InSb photodetector. SA Cell: saturated absorption cell. SF cell: saturated fluorescence cell. The region enclosed by green dash line is covered by plexiglass and continuously purged with dry nitrogen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the iodine-stabilised Nd:YAG master laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The third harmonic demodulated signal of 0001 ← 0000 R(18) line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The chronological distribution of absolute frequency measurements of 0001 ← 0000 R(18) line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The schematic of the longitudinal 4.3 μm fluorescence collecting cell (L-cell).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The second harmonic demodulated signal of P(20) [1001, 0201]I ← 0000. The frequency span = 10 MHz, and scan time T is 500 s.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the latest high precision mid-infrared spectrometers.

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