Abstract

Photonic crystal bandgap fibers employing distributed mode filtering design provide near diffraction-limited light outputs, a critical property of fiber-based high-power lasers. Microstructure of the fibers is tailored to achieve single-mode operation at specific wavelength by resonant mode coupling of higher-order modes. We analyze the modal regimes of the fibers having a mode field diameter of 60 µm by the cross-correlated (C2) imaging method in different wavelength ranges and evaluate the sensitivity of the modal content to various input-coupling conditions. As a result, we experimentally identify regimes of resonant coupling between higher-order core modes and cladding band. We demonstrate a passive fiber design in which the higher-order modal content inside the single-mode guiding regime is suppressed by at least 20 dB even for significantly misaligned input-coupling configurations.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Galvanauskas, M. C. Swan, and C.-H. Liu, “Effectively single-mode large core passive and active fibers with chirally coupled-core structures,” paper CMB1, CLEO/QELS, San Jose (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H. J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-mode ytterbium-doped Large-Mode-Area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, J. Fleming, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, S. Ghalmi, and S. Ramachandran, “A higher-order-mode Erbium-doped-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express18(17), 17651–17657 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express20(5), 5742–5753 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Laurila, J. Saby, T. T. Alkeskjold, L. Scolari, B. Cocquelin, F. Salin, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Q-switching and efficient harmonic generation from a single-mode LMA photonic bandgap rod fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(11), 10824–10833 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express19(1), 255–260 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. W. Nicholson, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Propagation of femtosecond pulses in large-mode-area, higher-order-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett.31(21), 3191–3193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators,” Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Siegman, “Defining, measuring, and optimizing laser beam quality,” Proc. SPIE1868, 2–12 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Wielandy, “Implications of higher-order mode content in large mode area fibers with good beam quality,” Opt. Express15(23), 15402–15409 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express16(10), 7233–7243 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 61–70 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Kaiser, D. Flamm, S. Schröter, and M. Duparré, “Complete modal decomposition for optical fibers using CGH-based correlation filters,” Opt. Express17(11), 9347–9356 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. N. Schimpf, R. A. Barankov, and S. Ramachandran, “Cross-correlated (C2) imaging of fiber and waveguide modes,” Opt. Express19(14), 13008–13019 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. A. Barankov, “Cross-correlation imaging for waveguide characterization”, M.S. Thesis, http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0666v1 [physics.optics]
  24. M. M. Jørgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. Laurila, J. Lægsgaard, and T. T. Alkeskjold, “Optimizing single mode robustness of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express20(7), 7263–7273 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of multipath interference in the coherent crosstalk regime,” Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. E. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express16(10), 7233–7243 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of multipath interference in the coherent crosstalk regime,” Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. E. Siegman, “Defining, measuring, and optimizing laser beam quality,” Proc. SPIE1868, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators,” Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Barankov, R. A.

Baumgartl, M.

Broeng, J.

Carstens, H.

Clarkson, W. A.

Cocquelin, B.

DeSantolo, A. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

DiMarcello, F.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Dong, L.

Duparré, M.

Eidam, T.

Ermeneux, S.

Fermann, M. E.

Fini, J. M.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, J. Fleming, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, S. Ghalmi, and S. Ramachandran, “A higher-order-mode Erbium-doped-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express18(17), 17651–17657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 61–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. E. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flamm, D.

Fleming, J.

Fu, L.

Ghalmi, S.

Hädrich, S.

Hansen, K. R.

Headley, C.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jørgensen, M. M.

Kaiser, T.

Lægsgaard, J.

Laurila, M.

Li, J.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Mckay, H. A.

Mermelstein, M.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. E. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mermelstein, M. D.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 61–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E.

Nicholson, J. W.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, J. Fleming, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, S. Ghalmi, and S. Ramachandran, “A higher-order-mode Erbium-doped-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express18(17), 17651–17657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 61–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express16(10), 7233–7243 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. E. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Propagation of femtosecond pulses in large-mode-area, higher-order-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett.31(21), 3191–3193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of multipath interference in the coherent crosstalk regime,” Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Otto, H. J.

Otto, H.-J.

Petersen, S. R.

Ramachandran, S.

Richardson, D. J.

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

Saby, J.

Salin, F.

Schimpf, D. N.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Schröter, S.

Scolari, L.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, “Defining, measuring, and optimizing laser beam quality,” Proc. SPIE1868, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators,” Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stutzki, F.

Thomas, B. K.

Tünnermann, A.

Wielandy, S.

Wisk, P.

Yablon, A. D.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 61–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express16(10), 7233–7243 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M. E.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. E. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

J. W. Nicholson, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Propagation of femtosecond pulses in large-mode-area, higher-order-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett.31(21), 3191–3193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of multipath interference in the coherent crosstalk regime,” Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yvernault, P.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 61–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. E. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (13)

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H. J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-mode ytterbium-doped Large-Mode-Area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Laurila, J. Saby, T. T. Alkeskjold, L. Scolari, B. Cocquelin, F. Salin, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Q-switching and efficient harmonic generation from a single-mode LMA photonic bandgap rod fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(11), 10824–10833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Schimpf, R. A. Barankov, and S. Ramachandran, “Cross-correlated (C2) imaging of fiber and waveguide modes,” Opt. Express19(14), 13008–13019 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express20(5), 5742–5753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, J. Fleming, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, S. Ghalmi, and S. Ramachandran, “A higher-order-mode Erbium-doped-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express18(17), 17651–17657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wielandy, “Implications of higher-order mode content in large mode area fibers with good beam quality,” Opt. Express15(23), 15402–15409 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express16(10), 7233–7243 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaiser, D. Flamm, S. Schröter, and M. Duparré, “Complete modal decomposition for optical fibers using CGH-based correlation filters,” Opt. Express17(11), 9347–9356 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Jørgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. Laurila, J. Lægsgaard, and T. T. Alkeskjold, “Optimizing single mode robustness of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express20(7), 7263–7273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of multipath interference in the coherent crosstalk regime,” Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators,” Proc. SPIE1224, 2–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “Defining, measuring, and optimizing laser beam quality,” Proc. SPIE1868, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Galvanauskas, M. C. Swan, and C.-H. Liu, “Effectively single-mode large core passive and active fibers with chirally coupled-core structures,” paper CMB1, CLEO/QELS, San Jose (2008).

M. C. Swan, C. Liu, D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “33μm Core Effectively Single-Mode Chirally-Coupled-Core Fiber Laser at 1064-nm,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWU2.

R. A. Barankov, “Cross-correlation imaging for waveguide characterization”, M.S. Thesis, http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0666v1 [physics.optics]

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