Abstract

Twenty-two measures of color rendition have been reviewed and summarized. Each measure was computed for 401 illuminants comprising incandescent, light-emitting diode (LED) -phosphor, LED-mixed, fluorescent, high-intensity discharge (HID), and theoretical illuminants. A multidimensional scaling analysis (Matrix Stress = 0.0731, R2 = 0.976) illustrates that the 22 measures cluster into three neighborhoods in a two-dimensional space, where the dimensions relate to color discrimination and color preference. When just two measures are used to characterize overall color rendition, the most information can be conveyed if one is a reference-based measure that is consistent with the concept of color fidelity or quality (e.g., Qa) and the other is a measure of relative gamut (e.g., Qg).

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

R. Dangol, M. Islam, M. Hyvarinen, P. Bhusal, M. Puolakka, and L. Halonen, “Subjective preferences and colour quality metrics of LED light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. published online, (Jan 4, 2013), DOI: .
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build.49, 216–225 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Status of solid-state lighting based on entries to the 2010 US DOE Next Generation Luminaire competition,” Leukos.8(4), 237–259 (2012).

2011 (3)

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. (Online) Nov 2011. 9 pgs. DOI:.
[CrossRef]

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl.36(4), 272–285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express19(9), 8151–8166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Burgt and J. van Kemenade, “About color rendition of light sources: The balance between simplicity and accuracy,” Color Res. Appl.35(2), 85–93 (2010).

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng.49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl.35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl.33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl.32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. G. Figueiro, K. Appleman, J. D. Bullough, and M. S. Rea, “A discussion of recommended standards for lighting in the NICU,” J. Perinatol.26, S19–S26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, “A review of color rendering indices and their application to commercial light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(3), 183–199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. A. Worthey, “Color rendering: asking the question,” Color Res. Appl.28(6), 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. W. Houser, “Lighting for quality,” Light Design Appl.32(11), 4–7 (2002).

1999 (1)

K. W. Houser and R. B. Gibbons, “Composite CRI,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.28(1), 117–129 (1999).

1993 (1)

H. Xu, “Colour rendering capacity and luminous efficiency of a spectrum,” Lighting Res. Tech.25(3), 131–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. R. Pointer, “Measuring colour rendering—a new approach,” Lighting Res. Tech.18(4), 175–184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

J. A. Schanda, “A combined colour preference – colour rendering index,” Light. Res. Tech.17(1), 31–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Seim, “In search of an improved method for assessing the colour rendering properties of light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech.17(1), 12–22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Xu, “Colour rendering capacity of illumination,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.13(2), 270–276 (1984).

1981 (1)

W. Walter, “How meaningful is the CIE color rendering index?” Light Design Appl.11(2), 13–15 (1981).

1977 (1)

P. R. Boyce and R. H. Simons, “Hue discrimination of light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech.9(3), 125–140 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color-preference index,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.4(1), 48–52 (1974).

1972 (2)

W. A. Thornton, “The quality of white light,” Lighting Des. Appl.12, 51–52 (1972).

W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.62(2), 191–194 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illum. Eng. (USA)62, 593–598 (1967).

1959 (1)

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” Illum. Eng. (USA)54, 452–456 (1959).

1948 (1)

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, “Color characteristics of human complexions,” Illum. Eng.43(1), 27–49 (1948).
[PubMed]

Appleman, K.

M. G. Figueiro, K. Appleman, J. D. Bullough, and M. S. Rea, “A discussion of recommended standards for lighting in the NICU,” J. Perinatol.26, S19–S26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhusal, P.

R. Dangol, M. Islam, M. Hyvarinen, P. Bhusal, M. Puolakka, and L. Halonen, “Subjective preferences and colour quality metrics of LED light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. published online, (Jan 4, 2013), DOI: .
[CrossRef]

Bodrogi, P.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl.36(4), 272–285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boyce, P. R.

P. R. Boyce and R. H. Simons, “Hue discrimination of light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech.9(3), 125–140 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, S.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl.36(4), 272–285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buck, G. B.

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, “Color characteristics of human complexions,” Illum. Eng.43(1), 27–49 (1948).
[PubMed]

Bullough, J. D.

M. G. Figueiro, K. Appleman, J. D. Bullough, and M. S. Rea, “A discussion of recommended standards for lighting in the NICU,” J. Perinatol.26, S19–S26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dangol, R.

R. Dangol, M. Islam, M. Hyvarinen, P. Bhusal, M. Puolakka, and L. Halonen, “Subjective preferences and colour quality metrics of LED light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. published online, (Jan 4, 2013), DOI: .
[CrossRef]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng.49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deconinck, G.

Figueiro, M. G.

M. G. Figueiro, K. Appleman, J. D. Bullough, and M. S. Rea, “A discussion of recommended standards for lighting in the NICU,” J. Perinatol.26, S19–S26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl.35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl.33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Froelich, H. C.

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, “Color characteristics of human complexions,” Illum. Eng.43(1), 27–49 (1948).
[PubMed]

Gibbons, R. B.

K. W. Houser and R. B. Gibbons, “Composite CRI,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.28(1), 117–129 (1999).

Guo, X.

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, “A review of color rendering indices and their application to commercial light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(3), 183–199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halonen, L.

R. Dangol, M. Islam, M. Hyvarinen, P. Bhusal, M. Puolakka, and L. Halonen, “Subjective preferences and colour quality metrics of LED light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. published online, (Jan 4, 2013), DOI: .
[CrossRef]

Hanselaer, P.

Hashimoto, K.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl.32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Houser, K. W.

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Status of solid-state lighting based on entries to the 2010 US DOE Next Generation Luminaire competition,” Leukos.8(4), 237–259 (2012).

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. (Online) Nov 2011. 9 pgs. DOI:.
[CrossRef]

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, “A review of color rendering indices and their application to commercial light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(3), 183–199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Houser, “Lighting for quality,” Light Design Appl.32(11), 4–7 (2002).

K. W. Houser and R. B. Gibbons, “Composite CRI,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.28(1), 117–129 (1999).

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Colour discrimination of seniors with and without cataract surgery under illumination from two fluorescent lamp types,” in Proceedings of CIE 2012 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency, (Hangzhou, China, 2012), 359–368.

Hyvarinen, M.

R. Dangol, M. Islam, M. Hyvarinen, P. Bhusal, M. Puolakka, and L. Halonen, “Subjective preferences and colour quality metrics of LED light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. published online, (Jan 4, 2013), DOI: .
[CrossRef]

Islam, M.

R. Dangol, M. Islam, M. Hyvarinen, P. Bhusal, M. Puolakka, and L. Halonen, “Subjective preferences and colour quality metrics of LED light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. published online, (Jan 4, 2013), DOI: .
[CrossRef]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illum. Eng. (USA)62, 593–598 (1967).

Khanh, T. Q.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl.36(4), 272–285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nayatani, Y.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl.32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng.49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

Puolakka, M.

R. Dangol, M. Islam, M. Hyvarinen, P. Bhusal, M. Puolakka, and L. Halonen, “Subjective preferences and colour quality metrics of LED light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. published online, (Jan 4, 2013), DOI: .
[CrossRef]

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl.35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl.33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Figueiro, K. Appleman, J. D. Bullough, and M. S. Rea, “A discussion of recommended standards for lighting in the NICU,” J. Perinatol.26, S19–S26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Royer, M. P.

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. (Online) Nov 2011. 9 pgs. DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Ryckaert, W. R.

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” Illum. Eng. (USA)54, 452–456 (1959).

Schanda, J. A.

J. A. Schanda, “A combined colour preference – colour rendering index,” Light. Res. Tech.17(1), 31–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Seim, T.

T. Seim, “In search of an improved method for assessing the colour rendering properties of light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech.17(1), 12–22 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl.32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simons, R. H.

P. R. Boyce and R. H. Simons, “Hue discrimination of light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech.9(3), 125–140 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smet, K.

Smet, K. A. G.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build.49, 216–225 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thornton, W. A.

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color-preference index,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.4(1), 48–52 (1974).

W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.62(2), 191–194 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Thornton, “The quality of white light,” Lighting Des. Appl.12, 51–52 (1972).

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van der Burgt, P.

P. van der Burgt and J. van Kemenade, “About color rendition of light sources: The balance between simplicity and accuracy,” Color Res. Appl.35(2), 85–93 (2010).

van Kemenade, J.

P. van der Burgt and J. van Kemenade, “About color rendition of light sources: The balance between simplicity and accuracy,” Color Res. Appl.35(2), 85–93 (2010).

Vitta, P.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walter, W.

W. Walter, “How meaningful is the CIE color rendering index?” Light Design Appl.11(2), 13–15 (1981).

Wei, M.

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Status of solid-state lighting based on entries to the 2010 US DOE Next Generation Luminaire competition,” Leukos.8(4), 237–259 (2012).

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Colour discrimination of seniors with and without cataract surgery under illumination from two fluorescent lamp types,” in Proceedings of CIE 2012 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency, (Hangzhou, China, 2012), 359–368.

Wilkerson, A. M.

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. (Online) Nov 2011. 9 pgs. DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Worthey, J. A.

J. A. Worthey, “Color rendering: asking the question,” Color Res. Appl.28(6), 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-dimensional Euclidian-distance MDS solution for 22 color measures based on 401 SPDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scatter plots of Ra vs. Qa (left, Spearman R2 = 0.937) and Ra vs. Ra12 (right, Spearman R2 = 0.830) for the 401 SPDs. Refer to the appendix for an explanation of the abbreviations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter plot of CCT vs. GAI illustrating that higher CCTs favor larger gamut areas. Spearman rank correlation coefficient between GAI and CCT, R2 = 0.791. R2 for the logarithmic fit shown as a black line is 0.574. The trend is similar for all measures of gamut area, including CDI, CRC84, CRC93, CSA, and FMG. Though not as pronounced as shown above, a positive trend with CCT also exists for FSCI and PI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional Euclidian-distance MDS solution for 22 measures based on 401 SPDs, where all measures have been computed using a reference illuminant at the same CCT as the test illuminant.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plot of Ra vs. GAI for the 401 SPDs binned into ranges of CCT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of Qa vs. Qg. The horizontal axis is related to fidelity and is a proxy for quality or naturalness when used for general illumination. The vertical axis is a measure of relative gamut and is a proxy for preference and discrimination. Refer to Table 2 for an explanation of the abbreviations.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the SPDs employed in this study. Abbreviations are used in Figs. 2 and 6

Tables Icon

Table 2 Matrix of Spearman Rank correlation coefficients that also illustrates blocks of similarity from the MDS scaling solution (see next secion). The upper left shading in orange identifies a cluster that can be called “fidelity-based” measures, the middle shading in green identifies a cluster that can be called “preference-based” measures, and the lower right shading in blue identifies a cluster that can be called “gamut-based” (discrimination) measures. The date that each index appears in the literature is also provided. ** indicates that the correlation is signification at the 0.01 level and * at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Tables Icon

Table 3 Performance of some of the 401 illuminants studied.

Metrics