Abstract

We successfully fabricate three-mode erbium doped fiber with a confined Er3+ doped ring structure and experimentally characterize the amplifier performance with a view to mode-division multiplexed (MDM) transmission. The differential modal gain was effectively mitigated by controlling the relative thickness of the ring-doped layer in the active fiber and pump launch conditions. A detailed study of the modal gain properties, amplifier performance in a MDM transmission system and inter-modal cross-gain modulation and associated transient effects is presented.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Winzer and G. J. Foschini, “MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems,” Opt. Express19(17), 16680–16696 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Bai, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M. J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G. D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express20(3), 2668–2680 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. P. Giles, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration and detailed characterization of a multimode amplifier for space division multiplexed transmission systems,” Opt. Express19(26), B952–B957 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. Giles, J. Sahu, L. Grüner-Nielsen, F. Poletti, and D. Richardson, “First demonstration of multimode amplifier for spatial division multiplexed transmission systems,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.K.4.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, and L. Zhang, “Analytical formula for the transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Opt.38(9), 1682–1685 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(3), 386–388 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), Chap. 2.
  17. J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(7), 329–331 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Lyytikainen, S. Huntington, A. Carter, P. McNamara, S. Fleming, J. Abramczyk, I. Kaplin, and G. Schötz, “Dopant diffusion during optical fibre drawing,” Opt. Express12(6), 972–977 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. P. Ringer, “Multiple solution-doping in optical fibre fabrication II- Rare earth and aluminium co-doping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(15-16), 1582–1590 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Shukunami and S. Inagaki, “Doped optical fiber having core and clad structure for increasing the amplification band of an optical amplifier using the optical fiber,” US Patent 5,778,129 (1998).

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. P. Ringer, “Multiple solution-doping in optical fibre fabrication II- Rare earth and aluminium co-doping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(15-16), 1582–1590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abramczyk, J.

Alam, S.

Alam, S. U.

Astruc, M.

Bai, N.

Barton, G. W.

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. P. Ringer, “Multiple solution-doping in optical fibre fabrication II- Rare earth and aluminium co-doping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(15-16), 1582–1590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baskiotis, C.

Bickham, S.

Bigo, S.

Bolle, C.

Bolle, C. A.

Boutin, A.

Brindel, P.

Burrows, E. C.

Carter, A.

Cerou, F.

Charlet, G.

Chen, H.

Corbett, B.

Cotter, D.

de Waardt, H.

Desurvire, E.

Dhar, A.

Ellis, A. D.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.

Essiambre, R. J.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fleming, S.

Foschini, G. J.

Giles, C. R.

Giles, D.

Giles, I. P.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goebel, B.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Huang, Y. K.

Huntington, S.

Inan, B.

Ip, E.

Jung, Y.

Kang, Q.

Kaplin, I.

Koebele, C.

Koonen, A. M. J.

Kramer, G.

Kuschnerov, M.

Lau, A. P. T.

Li, G.

Li, M. J.

Li, Z.

Lim, E. L.

Liñares, J.

Lingle, R.

Lu, C.

Luo, Y.

Lyytikainen, K.

Man Chung, K.

Mardoyan, H.

Mateo, E.

McCurdy, A.

McCurdy, A. H.

McNamara, P.

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. P. Ringer, “Multiple solution-doping in optical fibre fabrication II- Rare earth and aluminium co-doping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(15-16), 1582–1590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Lyytikainen, S. Huntington, A. Carter, P. McNamara, S. Fleming, J. Abramczyk, I. Kaplin, and G. Schötz, “Dopant diffusion during optical fibre drawing,” Opt. Express12(6), 972–977 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Mumtaz, S.

Nielsen, L. G.

Payne, D. N.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

Peng, G. D.

Poletti, F.

Poole, S. B.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, X.

Provost, L.

Randel, S.

Richardson, D. J.

Ringer, S. P.

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. P. Ringer, “Multiple solution-doping in optical fibre fabrication II- Rare earth and aluminium co-doping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(15-16), 1582–1590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

Sahu, J. K.

Salsi, M.

Schötz, G.

Sierra, A.

Sillard, P.

Simpson, J. R.

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

Sperti, D.

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, and L. Zhang, “Analytical formula for the transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Opt.38(9), 1682–1685 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, F. Z.

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. P. Ringer, “Multiple solution-doping in optical fibre fabrication II- Rare earth and aluminium co-doping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(15-16), 1582–1590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ten, S.

Townsend, J. E.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tran, P.

Tse, V.

van Uden, R. G. H.

Veljanovski, V.

Verluise, F.

Wang, T.

Winfield, R.

Winzer, P. J.

Yaman, F.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, J.

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, and L. Zhang, “Analytical formula for the transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Opt.38(9), 1682–1685 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, “EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(3), 386–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. P. Ringer, “Multiple solution-doping in optical fibre fabrication II- Rare earth and aluminium co-doping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(15-16), 1582–1590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

K. Lyytikainen, S. Huntington, A. Carter, P. McNamara, S. Fleming, J. Abramczyk, I. Kaplin, and G. Schötz, “Dopant diffusion during optical fibre drawing,” Opt. Express12(6), 972–977 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP01 pump configuration,” Opt. Express20(19), 20835–20843 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express19(17), 16593–16600 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Winzer and G. J. Foschini, “MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems,” Opt. Express19(17), 16680–16696 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. J. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle., “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express19(17), 16697–16707 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. P. Giles, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration and detailed characterization of a multimode amplifier for space division multiplexed transmission systems,” Opt. Express19(26), B952–B957 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M. J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G. D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express20(3), 2668–2680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

N. Shukunami and S. Inagaki, “Doped optical fiber having core and clad structure for increasing the amplification band of an optical amplifier using the optical fiber,” US Patent 5,778,129 (1998).

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), Chap. 2.

Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. Giles, J. Sahu, L. Grüner-Nielsen, F. Poletti, and D. Richardson, “First demonstration of multimode amplifier for spatial division multiplexed transmission systems,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.K.4.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, Q. Kang, L. Grüner Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, H. Chen, B. Inan, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.6Tb/s (96x3x256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP- 16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” in 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.3.C.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three mode Er3+ ring-doped fiber: (a) schematic design, (b) fiber refractive index /doping profile, and (c) measured absorption spectrum. (d) The measurement setup for modal gain analysis of the amplifier: mode multiplexer (MUX), three mode erbium doped fiber amplifier (TM-EDFA) and mode demultiplexer (DEMUX).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The effect of the length of ring-doped TM-EDFA on the modal gain and (b) the effect of pump launch condition on modal gain as a function of pump power at an input signal power of −2.5dBm per mode

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured gain spectrum characteristics for (a) different input signal powers (Ps) and (b) pump powers (Pp).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER performance of the TM-EDFA as a function of (a) input signal power per mode and (b) launched pump power. The constellations are the recovered 256-Gb/s DP-16QAM at an input signal power of −5dBm per mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The measured BER performances at 1550.2 nm for various input signal power into the TM-EDFA and (b) measured BER at the edge channels of C-band (1527.994nm and 1564.217nm) at the input signal power of −5dBm. The constellations are the recovered 112Gb/s DP-QPSK for an input signal power of −5dBm per mode with an OSNR of 15dB/0.1nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental setup for investigating transient effects in a TM-EDFA. (b) Normalized input and output signal channels in the event of modulation of Ch1. BS: beam splitter, AOM: acousto-optic modulators, SMF: single mode fiber, TMF: three mode fiber, Ch1: channel 1, NBF: narrow bandwidth filter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Power excursion of surviving channels (LP01 and LP11) according to Ch1 input signal power (equivalent to number of add/drop channels) in the event of either (a) LP01 or (b) LP11 spatial mode modulation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The effect of pump power on gain dynamics as a function of (a) power excursion and (b) transient setting time. (c, d) Power excursion as a function of the modulation frequency.

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