Abstract

A metamaterial with brief and ultrathin structure performs high efficiency in light absorption. An upright aluminum nanorod array (Al NRA) is obliquely deposited, measured, and analyzed its optical property. The Al NRA performs high efficiency of light absorption and low reflectance simultaneously. Based on the measured refractive index and impedances, the wave propagation through the Al NRA is traced to demonstrate the destructive interference that leads to antireflection. According to the analysis of wave tracing, an Al semicontinuous film with thickness of 15nm is introduced under an Al NRA with thickness of only 245nm as a brief and thin two-layered structure. The broadband and polarization-independent light absorption is measured over the violet-to-infrared regime.

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    [CrossRef]

2011

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Jen, C.-H. Chen, and C.-W. Yu, “Deposited metamaterial thin film with negative refractive index and permeability in the visible regime,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 1014–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. É. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, S. Neubeck, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. F. Kravets, “Plasmonic blackbody: Strong absorption of light by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Phys. Rev. B81(16), 165401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett.8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Lu and S. Sridhar, “Superlens imaging theory for anisotropic nanostructured metamaterials with broadband all-angle negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Silveirinha, “Additional Boundary Condition for the Wire Medium,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(6), 1766–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(3), 423–433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, V. M. Shalaev, and A. K. Sarychev, “Surface plasmon excitation and correlation-induced localization-delocalization transition in semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 113102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. Genov, A. Sarychev, and V. Shalaev, “Growth, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of semicontinuous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B67(3), 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett.8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belov, P. A.

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bur, J. A.

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett.8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Cao, H.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, F.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Chettiar, U. K.

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(3), 423–433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ci, L.

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett.8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(3), 423–433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. Genov, A. Sarychev, and V. Shalaev, “Growth, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of semicontinuous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B67(3), 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, V. M. Shalaev, and A. K. Sarychev, “Surface plasmon excitation and correlation-induced localization-delocalization transition in semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 113102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

V. G. Kravets, S. Neubeck, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. F. Kravets, “Plasmonic blackbody: Strong absorption of light by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Phys. Rev. B81(16), 165401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y.-K.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Jen, C.-H. Chen, and C.-W. Yu, “Deposited metamaterial thin film with negative refractive index and permeability in the visible regime,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 1014–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(3), 423–433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Kravets, A. F.

V. G. Kravets, S. Neubeck, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. F. Kravets, “Plasmonic blackbody: Strong absorption of light by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Phys. Rev. B81(16), 165401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, S. Neubeck, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. F. Kravets, “Plasmonic blackbody: Strong absorption of light by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Phys. Rev. B81(16), 165401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kriegler, C. É.

C. É. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.-Y.

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett.8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Linden, S.

C. É. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-A.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, X.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, W. T.

W. T. Lu and S. Sridhar, “Superlens imaging theory for anisotropic nanostructured metamaterials with broadband all-angle negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marqués, R.

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maslovski, S. I.

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nefedov, I. S.

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, M. A.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. Genov, A. Sarychev, and V. Shalaev, “Growth, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of semicontinuous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B67(3), 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neubeck, S.

V. G. Kravets, S. Neubeck, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. F. Kravets, “Plasmonic blackbody: Strong absorption of light by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Phys. Rev. B81(16), 165401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, H.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyga, P.

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C.-Y.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

C. É. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. Genov, A. Sarychev, and V. Shalaev, “Growth, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of semicontinuous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B67(3), 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(3), 423–433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Genov, V. M. Shalaev, and A. K. Sarychev, “Surface plasmon excitation and correlation-induced localization-delocalization transition in semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 113102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seal, K.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. Genov, A. Sarychev, and V. Shalaev, “Growth, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of semicontinuous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B67(3), 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. Genov, A. Sarychev, and V. Shalaev, “Growth, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of semicontinuous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B67(3), 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(3), 423–433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Genov, V. M. Shalaev, and A. K. Sarychev, “Surface plasmon excitation and correlation-induced localization-delocalization transition in semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 113102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silveirinha, M.

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silveirinha, M. G.

M. G. Silveirinha, “Additional Boundary Condition for the Wire Medium,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(6), 1766–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simovski, C. R.

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sridhar, S.

W. T. Lu and S. Sridhar, “Superlens imaging theory for anisotropic nanostructured metamaterials with broadband all-angle negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoreson, M. D.

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, S. A.

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

C. É. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamilov, A.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.-P.

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett.8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ying, Z. C.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. Genov, A. Sarychev, and V. Shalaev, “Growth, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of semicontinuous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B67(3), 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-W.

Yuan, H.-K.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(3), 423–433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. É. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.

M. G. Silveirinha, “Additional Boundary Condition for the Wire Medium,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(6), 1766–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nano Lett.

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett.8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).

Nature

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

D. A. Genov, V. M. Shalaev, and A. K. Sarychev, “Surface plasmon excitation and correlation-induced localization-delocalization transition in semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 113102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. Genov, A. Sarychev, and V. Shalaev, “Growth, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of semicontinuous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B67(3), 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, R. Marqués, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B67(11), 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kravets, S. Neubeck, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. F. Kravets, “Plasmonic blackbody: Strong absorption of light by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Phys. Rev. B81(16), 165401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Lu and S. Sridhar, “Superlens imaging theory for anisotropic nanostructured metamaterials with broadband all-angle negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 233101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-Field Intensity Correlations in Semicontinuous Metal-Dielectric Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Lakhtakia and R. Messier, Sculptured Thin Films: Nanoengineered Morphology and Optics (SPIE Press, 2005).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The Schematic diagram of Al NRA array fabricated by GLAD with rotating the substrate rapidly during deposition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopic images for the three Al NRAs with thicknesses of (a) 350nm, (b) 520nm and (c) 750nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured spectra of Tj, Rj, and Aj, j{x,y} of three NRAs. Light was normally incident when transmittance measurements were made but obliquely incident at 5 deg to the normal when reflectance measurements were made.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectra of refractive index n j , forward impedance Z +,j , and backward impedance Z ,j , j{x,y} .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The wave tracing of the Al NRA normally illuminated by light with an electric field amplitude of unity at wavelength of 690 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured spectra of permittivity ε j , permeability μ j and bianisotropic parameter ξ j , j{x,y} .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

P-polarized and s-polarized absorptances versus wavelength λ[400,700] nm and angle of incidence θ[ 5 , 60 ] for three Al NRAs with thicknesses of (a) (b) 350nm, (c) (d) 520nm and (e) (f) 750nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured spectra of Tj, Rj, and Aj, j{x,y} , of Al SCFs.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured spectra of Tj, Rj, and Aj, j{x,y} of Air/Al NRA(245nm)/SCF/BK7.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured spectra of Tj, Rj, and Aj, j{x,y} of Air/Al NRA(340nm)/SCF/BK7

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Absorptance spectra A x and A y of the compound film composited with Al SCF and Al NRA as functions of wavelength from 350nm to 1000nm and incident of angle from 5° to 60° for the Air/Al NRA(245nm)/SCF/BK7 system.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Absorptance spectra of A=( A x + A y )/2 for trapezoid fishnet structure [13] and Al NRA(245nm)/SCF coating on BK7 substrate.

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