Abstract

We measured the lattice and subband electronic temperatures of terahertz quantum cascade devices based on the optical phonon-scattering assisted active region scheme. While the electronic temperature of the injector state (j = 4) significantly increases by ΔT = Te4 – TL ~40 K, in analogy with the reported values in resonant phonon scheme (ΔT ~70-110 K), both the laser levels (j = 2,3) remain much colder with respect to the latter (by a factor of 3-5) and share the same electronic temperature of the ground level (j = 1). The electronic population ratio n2/n1 shows that the optical phonon scattering efficiently depopulates the lower laser level (j = 2) up to an electronic temperature Te ~180 K.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, K. Tanaka, T. Edamura, T. Kubis, and G. Klimeck, “Indirectly pumped 3.7 THz InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express20(18), 20647–20658 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏω/kB,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 166–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and boundary resistance in thz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE, J. Select. Topics in Quant. Electron.14, 431–435 (2008).

R. Nelander and A. Wacker, “Temperature dependence of the gain profile for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(8), 081102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Scamarcio, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, S. Kumar, B. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Nanoscale heat transfer in quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E40(6), 1780–1784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett.42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, and C. Sirtori, “Simultaneous measurement of the electronic and lattice temperatures in GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade lasers: Influence on the optical performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

V. Spagnolo, M. Troccoli, G. Scamarcio, C. Becker, G. Glastre, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal resistance and temperature characteristics of GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1177–1179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

J. Martinez-Pastor, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, P. Roussignol, and G. Weimann, “Temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in GaAs/AlxG1-xAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47(16), 10456–10460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G.

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Allen, M. G.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ban, D.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Barbieri, S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartalini, S.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, M. Troccoli, G. Scamarcio, C. Becker, G. Glastre, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal resistance and temperature characteristics of GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1177–1179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beere, E. H.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carraresi, L.

J. Martinez-Pastor, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, P. Roussignol, and G. Weimann, “Temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in GaAs/AlxG1-xAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47(16), 10456–10460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. W. I.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏω/kB,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 166–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Cho, A. Y.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colocci, M.

J. Martinez-Pastor, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, P. Roussignol, and G. Weimann, “Temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in GaAs/AlxG1-xAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47(16), 10456–10460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Consolino, L.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Natale, P.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, S. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Edamura, T.

Faist, J.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fathololoumi, S.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Fenner, D. B.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Furuta, S.

Gardecki, J. A.

Glastre, G.

V. Spagnolo, M. Troccoli, G. Scamarcio, C. Becker, G. Glastre, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal resistance and temperature characteristics of GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1177–1179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. P.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hensley, J. M.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏω/kB,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 166–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Scamarcio, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, S. Kumar, B. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Nanoscale heat transfer in quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E40(6), 1780–1784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett.42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Hutchinson, A. L.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jirauschek, C.

Klimeck, G.

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubis, T.

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏω/kB,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 166–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Scamarcio, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, S. Kumar, B. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Nanoscale heat transfer in quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E40(6), 1780–1784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett.42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laframboise, S. R.

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Lindskog, M.

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. C.

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Losco, T.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marano, D.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maroncelli, M.

Martinez-Pastor, J.

J. Martinez-Pastor, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, P. Roussignol, and G. Weimann, “Temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in GaAs/AlxG1-xAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47(16), 10456–10460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mátyás, A.

Nelander, R.

R. Nelander and A. Wacker, “Temperature dependence of the gain profile for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(8), 081102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Page, H.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, and C. Sirtori, “Simultaneous measurement of the electronic and lattice temperatures in GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade lasers: Influence on the optical performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parent, G.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Razavipour, S. G.

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏω/kB,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 166–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett.42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roussignol, P.

J. Martinez-Pastor, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, P. Roussignol, and G. Weimann, “Temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in GaAs/AlxG1-xAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47(16), 10456–10460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and boundary resistance in thz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE, J. Select. Topics in Quant. Electron.14, 431–435 (2008).

G. Scamarcio, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, S. Kumar, B. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Nanoscale heat transfer in quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E40(6), 1780–1784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, and C. Sirtori, “Simultaneous measurement of the electronic and lattice temperatures in GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade lasers: Influence on the optical performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, M. Troccoli, G. Scamarcio, C. Becker, G. Glastre, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal resistance and temperature characteristics of GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1177–1179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, and C. Sirtori, “Simultaneous measurement of the electronic and lattice temperatures in GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade lasers: Influence on the optical performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, M. Troccoli, G. Scamarcio, C. Becker, G. Glastre, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal resistance and temperature characteristics of GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1177–1179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

G. Scamarcio, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, S. Kumar, B. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Nanoscale heat transfer in quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E40(6), 1780–1784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and boundary resistance in thz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE, J. Select. Topics in Quant. Electron.14, 431–435 (2008).

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, and C. Sirtori, “Simultaneous measurement of the electronic and lattice temperatures in GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade lasers: Influence on the optical performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, M. Troccoli, G. Scamarcio, C. Becker, G. Glastre, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal resistance and temperature characteristics of GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1177–1179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

Taschin, A.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troccoli, M.

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, M. Troccoli, G. Scamarcio, C. Becker, G. Glastre, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal resistance and temperature characteristics of GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1177–1179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vinattieri, A.

J. Martinez-Pastor, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, P. Roussignol, and G. Weimann, “Temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in GaAs/AlxG1-xAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47(16), 10456–10460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and boundary resistance in thz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE, J. Select. Topics in Quant. Electron.14, 431–435 (2008).

G. Scamarcio, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, S. Kumar, B. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Nanoscale heat transfer in quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E40(6), 1780–1784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wacker, A.

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Nelander and A. Wacker, “Temperature dependence of the gain profile for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(8), 081102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Walther, C.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to  200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

Weimann, G.

J. Martinez-Pastor, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, P. Roussignol, and G. Weimann, “Temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in GaAs/AlxG1-xAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47(16), 10456–10460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B.

G. Scamarcio, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, S. Kumar, B. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Nanoscale heat transfer in quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E40(6), 1780–1784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett.42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Worrall, C.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Nelander and A. Wacker, “Temperature dependence of the gain profile for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(8), 081102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(11), 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, M. Troccoli, G. Scamarcio, C. Becker, G. Glastre, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal resistance and temperature characteristics of GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1177–1179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, and C. Sirtori, “Simultaneous measurement of the electronic and lattice temperatures in GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade lasers: Influence on the optical performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, J. Faist, G. Scalari, C. Walther, E. H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Probing quantum efficiency by laser-induced hot-electron cooling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett.42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc., Optoelectron. (1)

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, D. Marano, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, H. Page, C. Becker, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal characteristics of quantum-cascade lasers by micro-probe optical spectroscopy,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.150(4), 298–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE, J. Select. Topics in Quant. Electron. (1)

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and boundary resistance in thz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE, J. Select. Topics in Quant. Electron.14, 431–435 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 073111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏω/kB,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 166–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Martinez-Pastor, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, P. Roussignol, and G. Weimann, “Temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in GaAs/AlxG1-xAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47(16), 10456–10460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (1)

G. Scamarcio, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, S. Kumar, B. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Nanoscale heat transfer in quantum cascade lasers,” Physica E40(6), 1780–1784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, S. G. Razavipour, S. R. Laframboise, G. Parent, Z. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and D. Ban, “On metal contacts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with a metal–metal waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(10), 105021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Shah, Hot Carriers in Semiconductor Nanostructures: Physics and Applications (Academic, 1992).

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu (unpublished).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated conduction (a-c) and valence (d-f) band structures (1 period) of the investigated GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As samples a (V0843), b (V0845) and c (V0962) under applied voltages per period / electric field of (67.1 mV / 18.6 kV/cm), (71.8 mV / 18.7 kV/cm), and (64.5 mV / 16.4 kV/cm), respectively. A 75% conduction-band offset, corresponding to a 0.275 eV barrier height, was used. Starting from the injection barrier, the layers thickness in (Å) are (from right to left) (a): 44/63/11/67/23/85/9/61, (b) 44/64/16/72/28/104/6/50, and (c) 35/48/8/39/9/72/27/86/5/66. The total number of periods are 276, 260 and 253 for samples (a), (b), and (c). The barriers are indicated in bold fonts. The underlined layers are doped. Samples (a) and (b) are center delta-doped with Si to a sheet density of n = 3.25∙1010 cm−2 and n = 3.46∙1010 cm−2, respectively. Sample (c) is conventionally doped to n = 1.5∙1017 cm−3 in the center 2 nm of the 4.8 nm quantum well.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a-c): the current density (J)-voltage per stage (V) characteristics of sample a, b, and c in continuous-wave (CW) operation and at the heat sink temperature TH = 50 K. Dashed lines are guides for eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative photoluminescence spectra of sample (c) at lattice temperatures of 50 K, 130 K, 220 K and 300 K without any applied voltage. The corresponding integration times are: 1 s, 25 s, 80 s, and 180 s. The high energy slope of each curve depends exponentially on the electronic temperature as described in the text. Inset: Temperature dependence of peak energy E1→1. The solid line is the best fit obtained using a Varshni-like function E 11 ( T L )= E 11 (0) α T L 2 β+ T L with E11(0) = 1.547 eV, α = 5.93 × 10−4 eV/K2 and β = 277 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a-c): Representative photoluminescence spectra (blue lines) and best fit functions (dashed lines) of samples a-c under applied voltages per period / electric field of (64.3 mV / 17.8 kV/cm), (70.3 mV / 18.3 kV/cm), and (62.8 mV / 15.9 kV/cm), respectively. The heat sink temperature is TH = 50 K. The calculated individual contributions associated with relevant j → k transitions are also shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean lattice temperature (●) and electronic temperatures Te1,2,3 (■) and Te4 (▲) in the active region of sample (a), (b) and (c) measured as a function of the electrical power at a heat sink temperature TH = 50 K. Solid lines are linear fit to the data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative population n2/n1 between the lower laser level (j = 2) and the extractor level (j = 1) for sample (c) (●). Relative population n2/n1 calculated assuming a thermal populations of the subbands j = 1 and j = 2 for sample (c) (■). The dashed curves are guides for the eye.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The squared moduli of the overlap integrals |⟨ψj|ψk ⟩|2 between conduction (j) and valence (k) subband envelope functions are reported from top to bottom for sample (a), (b) and (c), respectively. This calculation is performed at the electric field values of Fig. 1. Bold values marks the transitions j → k with |⟨ψj|ψk ⟩|2 □ 0.2.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Energies of relevant intersubband transitions of Fig. 1. E43 corresponds to the phonon scattering assisted injection; E32 is the laser transition energy; E21 is associated with the depletion of the lower laser level.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I PL (E) j=1 4 k=1 4 A jk E jk 4 | ψ j | ψ k | 2 (E)
( E )={ A 2π Γ( T L ) (E E jk ) 2 + Γ 2 ( T L )        E< E jk + Δ j B e E( 1 K B T e j + m e * m hh *    1 K B T hh )                       E> E jk + Δ j            
Γ( T L )= Γ 0 +a T L + b e ω LO K B T L 1

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