Abstract

We here report the integration of red emissive CuInS2 based nanocrysals as a potential red phosphor for warm light generation. By combining red emissive CuInS2 based nanocrysals with commercial yellow emissive YAG:Ce and green emissive Eu2+ doped silicate phosphors, we fabricated warm white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index up to ~92, high luminous efficiency of 45~60 lm/W and color temperature less than 4000K.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. A. Höppe, “Recent developments in the field of inorganic phosphors,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(20), 3572–3582 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. C. Lin and R. S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Warm-white light-emitting diodes integrated with colloidal quantum dots for high luminous efficacy and color rendering,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3372–3374 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(3), 031102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, and X. Y. Dong, “White LED Based on YAG: Ce,Gd Phosphor and CdSe-ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 884–886 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Kim, J. Y. Woo, S. Jeong, and C. S. Han, “Photoenhancement of a quantum dot nanocomposite via UV annealing and its application to white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 911–914 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, H. Yang, and D. Y. Jeon, “Bright three-band white light generated from CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot-assisted Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+-based white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161901 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. B. Wang, X. S. Yan, W. W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater.24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. J. Xie, Y. Q. Li, N. Hirosaki, and H. Yamamoto, Nitride Phosphors and Solid State Lighting (Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011), Chap. 7.

2012

X. B. Wang, X. S. Yan, W. W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater.24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Zhong, Z. L. Bai, and B. S. Zou, “Tuning the luminescence properties of colloidal I–III–VI semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectronics and biotechnology applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(21), 3167–3175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Chung, H. Jung, C. H. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “Fabrication of high color rendering index white LED using Cd-free wavelength tunable Zn doped CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Opt. Express20(22), 25071–25076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Song and H. Yang, “Efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated from highly fluorescent copper indium sulfide core/shell quantum dots,” Chem. Mater.24(10), 1961–1967 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Kim, J. Y. Woo, S. Jeong, and C. S. Han, “Photoenhancement of a quantum dot nanocomposite via UV annealing and its application to white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lin and R. S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Q. Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Warm-white light-emitting diodes integrated with colloidal quantum dots for high luminous efficacy and color rendering,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3372–3374 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, and X. Y. Dong, “White LED Based on YAG: Ce,Gd Phosphor and CdSe-ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 884–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. A. Höppe, “Recent developments in the field of inorganic phosphors,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(20), 3572–3582 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, H. Yang, and D. Y. Jeon, “Bright three-band white light generated from CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot-assisted Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+-based white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(3), 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Z. L.

H. Z. Zhong, Z. L. Bai, and B. S. Zou, “Tuning the luminescence properties of colloidal I–III–VI semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectronics and biotechnology applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(21), 3167–3175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bando, Y.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Batentschuk, M.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. K.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, S. H.

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W.

Dai, Q. Q.

Q. Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demir, H. V.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Warm-white light-emitting diodes integrated with colloidal quantum dots for high luminous efficacy and color rendering,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3372–3374 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(3), 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, and X. Y. Dong, “White LED Based on YAG: Ce,Gd Phosphor and CdSe-ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 884–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duty, C. E.

Q. Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdem, T.

Eychmüeller, A.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, H. J.

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, and X. Y. Dong, “White LED Based on YAG: Ce,Gd Phosphor and CdSe-ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 884–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaponik, N.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gindele, F.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, J. D.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, C. S.

K. Kim, J. Y. Woo, S. Jeong, and C. S. Han, “Photoenhancement of a quantum dot nanocomposite via UV annealing and its application to white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Höppe, H. A.

H. A. Höppe, “Recent developments in the field of inorganic phosphors,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(20), 3572–3582 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, Q. L.

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, and X. Y. Dong, “White LED Based on YAG: Ce,Gd Phosphor and CdSe-ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 884–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M. Z.

Q. Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, S.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, H. S.

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, H. Yang, and D. Y. Jeon, “Bright three-band white light generated from CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot-assisted Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+-based white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, H. Yang, and D. Y. Jeon, “Bright three-band white light generated from CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot-assisted Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+-based white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

K. Kim, J. Y. Woo, S. Jeong, and C. S. Han, “Photoenhancement of a quantum dot nanocomposite via UV annealing and its application to white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, H.

Kang, M.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Y. Woo, S. Jeong, and C. S. Han, “Photoenhancement of a quantum dot nanocomposite via UV annealing and its application to white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kucur, E.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, S. K.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, B. H.

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, H. Yang, and D. Y. Jeon, “Bright three-band white light generated from CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot-assisted Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+-based white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

Lee, J. E.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. G.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, and X. Y. Dong, “White LED Based on YAG: Ce,Gd Phosphor and CdSe-ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 884–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. W.

X. B. Wang, X. S. Yan, W. W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater.24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. F.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

C. C. Lin and R. S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. S.

C. C. Lin and R. S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meister, F.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mutlugun, E.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nann, T.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nizamoglu, S.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Warm-white light-emitting diodes integrated with colloidal quantum dots for high luminous efficacy and color rendering,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3372–3374 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(3), 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Özel, T.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, L. S.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenthal, S. J.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sapra, S.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schreuder, M. A.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, C. Y.

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, and X. Y. Dong, “White LED Based on YAG: Ce,Gd Phosphor and CdSe-ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 884–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. J.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, W. S.

W. S. Song and H. Yang, “Efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated from highly fluorescent copper indium sulfide core/shell quantum dots,” Chem. Mater.24(10), 1961–1967 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suh, M.

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

X. B. Wang, X. S. Yan, W. W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater.24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

Tan, Z. A.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. B.

X. B. Wang, X. S. Yan, W. W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater.24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warnement, M. R.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S. M.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J. Y.

K. Kim, J. Y. Woo, S. Jeong, and C. S. Han, “Photoenhancement of a quantum dot nanocomposite via UV annealing and its application to white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X. S.

X. B. Wang, X. S. Yan, W. W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater.24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

W. S. Song and H. Yang, “Efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated from highly fluorescent copper indium sulfide core/shell quantum dots,” Chem. Mater.24(10), 1961–1967 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, H. Yang, and D. Y. Jeon, “Bright three-band white light generated from CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot-assisted Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+-based white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, I.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. Y.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, T. W.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. L.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zengin, G.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(3), 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, T. Y.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. Q.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H. Z.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Z. Zhong, Z. L. Bai, and B. S. Zou, “Tuning the luminescence properties of colloidal I–III–VI semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectronics and biotechnology applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(21), 3167–3175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zou, B. S.

H. Z. Zhong, Z. L. Bai, and B. S. Zou, “Tuning the luminescence properties of colloidal I–III–VI semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectronics and biotechnology applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(21), 3167–3175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

B. K. Chen, H. Z. Zhong, W. Q. Zhang, Z. A. Tan, Y. F. Li, C. L. Yu, T. Y. Zhai, Y. Bando, S. Y. Yang, and B. S. Zou, “Highly emissive and color-tunable CuInS2-based colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals: off-stoichiometry effects and improved electroluminescence performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(10), 2081–2088 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater.20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, J. Y. Woo, S. Jeong, and C. S. Han, “Photoenhancement of a quantum dot nanocomposite via UV annealing and its application to white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. B. Wang, X. S. Yan, W. W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater.24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

H. A. Höppe, “Recent developments in the field of inorganic phosphors,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(20), 3572–3582 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Özel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüeller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(3), 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, H. Yang, and D. Y. Jeon, “Bright three-band white light generated from CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot-assisted Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+-based white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

W. S. Song and H. Yang, “Efficient white-light-emitting diodes fabricated from highly fluorescent copper indium sulfide core/shell quantum dots,” Chem. Mater.24(10), 1961–1967 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

H. Kim, H. S. Jang, B. H. Kwon, M. Suh, Y. Kim, S. H. Cheong, and D. Y. Jeon, “In situ synthesis of thiol-capped CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots embedded in silica powder by sequential ligand-exchange and silanization,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.15(2), K16–K18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, and X. Y. Dong, “White LED Based on YAG: Ce,Gd Phosphor and CdSe-ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 884–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

S. Kim, T. Kim, M. Kang, S. K. Kwak, T. W. Yoo, L. S. Park, I. Yang, S. Hwang, J. E. Lee, S. K. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS nanocrystals and their application to white light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3804–3809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem.

M. A. Schreuder, J. D. Gosnell, N. J. Smith, M. R. Warnement, S. M. Weiss, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Encapsulated white-light CdSe nanocrystals as nanophosphors for solid-state lighting,” J. Mater. Chem.18(9), 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett.

C. C. Lin and R. S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Z. Zhong, Z. L. Bai, and B. S. Zou, “Tuning the luminescence properties of colloidal I–III–VI semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectronics and biotechnology applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(21), 3167–3175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

Q. Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. J. Xie, Y. Q. Li, N. Hirosaki, and H. Yamamoto, Nitride Phosphors and Solid State Lighting (Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011), Chap. 7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption (black solid line), PL spectra (red solid line) excited at 450 nm and TEM image (inset) of typical red emissive CuInS2 based NCs. (b) PL and PLE spectra of G2762, YAG:Ce phosphors and red emissive CuInS2 based NCs excited at 450 nm, EL spectrum of blue LED chip (blue solid line); Inset: the corresponding picture of G2762, YAG:Ce phosphors and red emissive CuInS2 NCs under UV radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) EL spectra of the as-fabricated surface mounted devices operated at a forward bias current of 350 mA using YAG:Ce (black line), YAG:Ce and red CuInS2 NCs (red line). (b) CIE chromaticity diagram of the devices based on YAG: Ce phosphor with and without red CuInS2 based NCs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) EL spectra of blue LED chip coated with G2762 and YAG:Ce phosphors, blue LED chip coated with CuInS2 based NCs, and blue LED chip with a mixture of G2762, YAG:Ce phosphors and CuInS2 based NCs. (b) CIE color coordinates of the WLED devices based on dual phosphors (G2762, YAG:Ce) and hybrid composites of three phosphors (G2762, YAG:Ce and CuInS2 based NCs).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of (a) the as-fabricated three phosphor WLEDs and (b) lighting operated at 350 mA. (c) EL spectra and (d) CIE color coordinates of the devices with tunable color temperatures under a forward bias current of 350 mA.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The luminous efficiencies (LE), CIE coordinates (x, y), color temperatures (Tc) and color rendering index (Ra) of the dual-phosphors surface mounted devices operated at 20 mA.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The luminous efficiencies (LE), CIE coordinates (x, y), color temperatures (Tc) and color rendering index (Ra) of the as-fabricated three-phosphors WLEDs with SMD type (operated at 20 mA) and high power type (operated at 350 mA).

Metrics