Abstract

We study the optical response of a metamaterial surface created by a lattice of split-ring resonators covered with a nematic liquid crystal and demonstrate millisecond timescale switching between electric and magnetic resonances of the metasurface. This is achieved due to a high sensitivity of liquid-crystal molecular reorientation to the symmetry of the metasurface as well as to the presence of a bias electric field. Our experiments are complemented by numerical simulations of the liquid-crystal reorientation.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Kang, J. H. Woo, E. Choi, H.-H. Lee, E. S. Kim, J. Kim, T.-J. Hwang, Y.-S. Park, D. H. Kim, and J. W. Wu, “Optical switching of near infrared light transmission in metamaterial-liquid crystal cell structure,” Opt. Express18, 16492–16498 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. Sun, K. Qiu, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Electrically controllable fishnet metamaterial based on nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19, 1563–1568 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 410–417 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science335, 427 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays,” Phys. Rev. B84, 85416 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Kremers, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and D. N. Chigrin, “An explicit finite-difference method to calculate liquid crystal re-orientation dynamics,” AIP Conf. Proc.1475, 65–67 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. Chen, Liquid crystal displays: fundamental physics and technology (John Wiley & Sons, 2011)
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. D. Polak, G. P. Crawford, B. C. Kostival, J. W. Doane, and S. Zumer, “Optical determination of the saddle-splay elastic constant K21 in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E49, R978 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Buchnev, J. Y. Ou, M. Kaczmarek, N. I. Zheludev, and V. A. Fedotov, “Electro-optical control in a plasmonic metamaterial hybridised with a liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Express21, 1633–1638 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

C. Kremers, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and D. N. Chigrin, “An explicit finite-difference method to calculate liquid crystal re-orientation dynamics,” AIP Conf. Proc.1475, 65–67 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

F. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. Sun, K. Qiu, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Electrically controllable fishnet metamaterial based on nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19, 1563–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays,” Phys. Rev. B84, 85416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

B. Kang, J. H. Woo, E. Choi, H.-H. Lee, E. S. Kim, J. Kim, T.-J. Hwang, Y.-S. Park, D. H. Kim, and J. W. Wu, “Optical switching of near infrared light transmission in metamaterial-liquid crystal cell structure,” Opt. Express18, 16492–16498 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 410–417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. D. Polak, G. P. Crawford, B. C. Kostival, J. W. Doane, and S. Zumer, “Optical determination of the saddle-splay elastic constant K21 in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E49, R978 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buchnev, O.

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chae, B.-G.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. H.

R. H. Chen, Liquid crystal displays: fundamental physics and technology (John Wiley & Sons, 2011)
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chigrin, D. N.

C. Kremers, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and D. N. Chigrin, “An explicit finite-difference method to calculate liquid crystal re-orientation dynamics,” AIP Conf. Proc.1475, 65–67 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E.

Crawford, G. P.

R. D. Polak, G. P. Crawford, B. C. Kostival, J. W. Doane, and S. Zumer, “Optical determination of the saddle-splay elastic constant K21 in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E49, R978 (1994).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, F.

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays,” Phys. Rev. B84, 85416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

di Ventra, M.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz, A.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 410–417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

R. D. Polak, G. P. Crawford, B. C. Kostival, J. W. Doane, and S. Zumer, “Optical determination of the saddle-splay elastic constant K21 in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E49, R978 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V.

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emani, N. K.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farnell, J.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

Feth, N.

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays,” Phys. Rev. B84, 85416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gholipour, B.

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. C.

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 410–417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, T.-J.

Jagadish, C.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaczmarek, M.

Kang, B.

Kang, L.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 410–417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-J.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

Kim, E. S.

Kim, H.-T.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knight, K.

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostival, B. C.

R. D. Polak, G. P. Crawford, B. C. Kostival, J. W. Doane, and S. Zumer, “Optical determination of the saddle-splay elastic constant K21 in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E49, R978 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kremers, C.

C. Kremers, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and D. N. Chigrin, “An explicit finite-difference method to calculate liquid crystal re-orientation dynamics,” AIP Conf. Proc.1475, 65–67 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-H.

Lee, Y.-W.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays,” Phys. Rev. B84, 85416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippens, D.

Ma, Y.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 410–417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKerracher, I.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Minovich, A.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

C. Kremers, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and D. N. Chigrin, “An explicit finite-difference method to calculate liquid crystal re-orientation dynamics,” AIP Conf. Proc.1475, 65–67 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D. N.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ou, J. Y.

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

Polak, R. D.

R. D. Polak, G. P. Crawford, B. C. Kostival, J. W. Doane, and S. Zumer, “Optical determination of the saddle-splay elastic constant K21 in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E49, R978 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Powell, D. A.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, K.

Samson, Z. L

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shadrivov, I. V.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays,” Phys. Rev. B84, 85416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinger, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 410–417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Tan, H. H.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays,” Phys. Rev. B84, 85416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, J. H.

Wu, J. W.

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, W.

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

O. Buchnev, J. Y. Ou, M. Kaczmarek, N. I. Zheludev, and V. A. Fedotov, “Electro-optical control in a plasmonic metamaterial hybridised with a liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Express21, 1633–1638 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

F. Zhang, W. Zhang, J. Sun, K. Qiu, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Electrically controllable fishnet metamaterial based on nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19, 1563–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumer, S.

R. D. Polak, G. P. Crawford, B. C. Kostival, J. W. Doane, and S. Zumer, “Optical determination of the saddle-splay elastic constant K21 in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E49, R978 (1994).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

C. Kremers, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and D. N. Chigrin, “An explicit finite-difference method to calculate liquid crystal re-orientation dynamics,” AIP Conf. Proc.1475, 65–67 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Z. L Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Minovich, J. Farnell, D. N. Neshev, I. McKerracher, F. Karouta, J. Tian, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Liquid crystal based nonlinear fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, and Y. Ma, “Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 410–417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2, 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays,” Phys. Rev. B84, 85416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. D. Polak, G. P. Crawford, B. C. Kostival, J. W. Doane, and S. Zumer, “Optical determination of the saddle-splay elastic constant K21 in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E49, R978 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science325, 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. H. Chen, Liquid crystal displays: fundamental physics and technology (John Wiley & Sons, 2011)
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3706 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Artistic view of the LC cell. The SRR metamaterial is processed on top of the bottom electrode while the upper electrode is covered with an alignment layer of mechanically brushed PVA. An AC power supply is connected to the conductive ITO films (plotted in dark gray). (b) Experimental transmittance spectra of the bare SRR metamaterial sample for x- (red) and y- (black) polarization of the incident light. The yellow area highlights the spectral range relevant for our experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental transmittance spectra of the LC cell with no voltage applied (‘OFF’ state, black) and for V = 6V (‘ON’ state, red). Insets: CCD images of the metamaterial area in the ‘OFF’ and ‘ON’ state. Realtime movies of the switching are shown in Media 1. (b) Threshold behavior of the switching process for increasing (blue) and consecutive decreasing (red) voltages. The left inset depicts the (helical) LC distribution in the ‘OFF’ state, the right inset shows the situation in the ‘ON’ state (no helical distribution). The incident and output light polarizations are indicated as green and red/black arrows, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated transmittance spectra for the ‘OFF’ and ‘ON’ state in black and red, respectively. (b,c) Distribution of the LC directors in a 3μm-thick LC cell in the ‘OFF’ and ‘ON’ states, respectively. The orientation of the LC molecules is visualized as red streamline. The inset in the lower left shows a close up of the distribution of the LC molecules near and on the SRR metasurface.

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