Abstract

A lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting laser (LC-PCSEL) with airholes of cone-like shape etched near to the active layer is fabricated. It employs only a simple commercial epitaxial wafer without DBR and needs no wafer bonding technique. Surface emitting lasing action at 1575 nm with power of 1.8 mW is observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production of electrically driven PCSELs with low cost. Additionally, Fano resonance is utilized to analyze aperture equivalence of PC, and energy distribution in simplified laser structure is simulated to show oscillation and transmission characteristics of laser.

© 2013 OSA

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2012

Y. Wang, H. Wang, Q. Xue, and W. Zheng, “Photonic crystal self-collimation sensor,” Opt. Express20(11), 12111–12118 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Ma, X. Yin, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed and electrically modulated plasmon laser circuit,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5396–5402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Kim, J. Huang, and A. Scherer, “Photonic crystal nanocavity laser in an optically very thick slab,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 488–490 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

W. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Ma, M. Xing, and W. Zheng, “Band optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt.13(1), 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, W. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. Liu, W. Chen, H. Wang, F. Fu, and A. Qi, “Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface-emitting laser with ultralow threshold,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4140–4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, S. Kim, K. Hwang, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, “Operation of photonic crystal laser in continous-wave mode for 18 hours,” Appl. Phys. Express4(12), 122101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, W. Zhou, A. Liu, W. Chen, F. Fu, X. Yan, B. Jiang, Q. Xue, and W. Zheng, “Optical properties of the crescent and coherent applications,” Opt. Express19(9), 8303–8311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(5), paper no. 59 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, M. Xing, G. Ren, S. G. Johnson, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and L. Chen, “Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend,” Opt. Express17(10), 8657–8668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser having a square-lattice slab structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C(3), 386–392 (2004).

2003

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett.39(7), 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1987

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berggren, J.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

W. Zheng, M. Xing, G. Ren, S. G. Johnson, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and L. Chen, “Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend,” Opt. Express17(10), 8657–8668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Ma, M. Xing, and W. Zheng, “Band optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt.13(1), 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, W. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. Liu, W. Chen, H. Wang, F. Fu, and A. Qi, “Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface-emitting laser with ultralow threshold,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4140–4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Zhou, A. Liu, W. Chen, F. Fu, X. Yan, B. Jiang, Q. Xue, and W. Zheng, “Optical properties of the crescent and coherent applications,” Opt. Express19(9), 8303–8311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, M. Xing, G. Ren, S. G. Johnson, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and L. Chen, “Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend,” Opt. Express17(10), 8657–8668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chuwongin, S.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, B.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Erchak, A. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express3(1), 4–11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, F.

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(5), paper no. 59 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haller, E. E.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hammar, M.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Huang, J.

Hwang, K.

S. Kim, S. Kim, K. Hwang, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, “Operation of photonic crystal laser in continous-wave mode for 18 hours,” Appl. Phys. Express4(12), 122101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett.39(7), 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

S. Kim, S. Kim, K. Hwang, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, “Operation of photonic crystal laser in continous-wave mode for 18 hours,” Appl. Phys. Express4(12), 122101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B.

W. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Ma, M. Xing, and W. Zheng, “Band optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt.13(1), 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, W. Zhou, A. Liu, W. Chen, F. Fu, X. Yan, B. Jiang, Q. Xue, and W. Zheng, “Optical properties of the crescent and coherent applications,” Opt. Express19(9), 8303–8311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express3(1), 4–11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

W. Zheng, M. Xing, G. Ren, S. G. Johnson, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and L. Chen, “Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend,” Opt. Express17(10), 8657–8668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. J.

S. Kim, S. Kim, K. Hwang, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, “Operation of photonic crystal laser in continous-wave mode for 18 hours,” Appl. Phys. Express4(12), 122101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, S. Kim, K. Hwang, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, “Operation of photonic crystal laser in continous-wave mode for 18 hours,” Appl. Phys. Express4(12), 122101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, S. Kim, K. Hwang, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, “Operation of photonic crystal laser in continous-wave mode for 18 hours,” Appl. Phys. Express4(12), 122101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. B.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, J. Huang, and A. Scherer, “Photonic crystal nanocavity laser in an optically very thick slab,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 488–490 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolodziejski, L.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

Y. Wang, W. Zhou, A. Liu, W. Chen, F. Fu, X. Yan, B. Jiang, Q. Xue, and W. Zheng, “Optical properties of the crescent and coherent applications,” Opt. Express19(9), 8303–8311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Ma, M. Xing, and W. Zheng, “Band optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt.13(1), 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, W. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. Liu, W. Chen, H. Wang, F. Fu, and A. Qi, “Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface-emitting laser with ultralow threshold,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4140–4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(5), paper no. 59 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, C.

W. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Ma, M. Xing, and W. Zheng, “Band optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt.13(1), 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. M.

R. M. Ma, X. Yin, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed and electrically modulated plasmon laser circuit,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5396–5402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M. A.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murata, M.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser having a square-lattice slab structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C(3), 386–392 (2004).

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett.39(7), 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, K.

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, D.

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett.39(7), 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. M. Ma, X. Yin, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed and electrically modulated plasmon laser circuit,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5396–5402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrich, G. S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qi, A.

Qu, H.

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ren, G.

W. Zheng, M. Xing, G. Ren, S. G. Johnson, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and L. Chen, “Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend,” Opt. Express17(10), 8657–8668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett.39(7), 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarmiento, T.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, G.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Seo, J.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shambat, G.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shuai, Y.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. M. Ma, X. Yin, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed and electrically modulated plasmon laser circuit,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5396–5402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokuda, T.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express3(1), 4–11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, Y.

Wu, Y. K.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(5), paper no. 59 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, M.

W. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Ma, M. Xing, and W. Zheng, “Band optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt.13(1), 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, M. Xing, G. Ren, S. G. Johnson, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and L. Chen, “Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend,” Opt. Express17(10), 8657–8668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(5), paper no. 59 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, Q.

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, X.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

R. M. Ma, X. Yin, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed and electrically modulated plasmon laser circuit,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5396–5402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, M.

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser having a square-lattice slab structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C(3), 386–392 (2004).

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. M. Ma, X. Yin, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed and electrically modulated plasmon laser circuit,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5396–5402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W.

Y. Wang, H. Wang, Q. Xue, and W. Zheng, “Photonic crystal self-collimation sensor,” Opt. Express20(11), 12111–12118 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Zhou, A. Liu, W. Chen, F. Fu, X. Yan, B. Jiang, Q. Xue, and W. Zheng, “Optical properties of the crescent and coherent applications,” Opt. Express19(9), 8303–8311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Ma, M. Xing, and W. Zheng, “Band optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt.13(1), 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, W. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. Liu, W. Chen, H. Wang, F. Fu, and A. Qi, “Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface-emitting laser with ultralow threshold,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4140–4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, M. Xing, G. Ren, S. G. Johnson, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and L. Chen, “Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend,” Opt. Express17(10), 8657–8668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 617–620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Ma, M. Xing, and W. Zheng, “Band optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt.13(1), 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, W. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. Liu, W. Chen, H. Wang, F. Fu, and A. Qi, “Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface-emitting laser with ultralow threshold,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4140–4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Zhou, A. Liu, W. Chen, F. Fu, X. Yan, B. Jiang, Q. Xue, and W. Zheng, “Optical properties of the crescent and coherent applications,” Opt. Express19(9), 8303–8311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, M. Xing, G. Ren, S. G. Johnson, W. Zhou, W. Chen, and L. Chen, “Integration of a photonic crystal polarization beam splitter and waveguide bend,” Opt. Express17(10), 8657–8668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, W. Chen, A. Liu, M. Xing, G. Ren, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and W. Zheng, “The impact of imperfect symmetry on band edge modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with square lattice,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(9), 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

S. Kim, S. Kim, K. Hwang, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, “Operation of photonic crystal laser in continous-wave mode for 18 hours,” Appl. Phys. Express4(12), 122101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Zheng, G. Ren, M. Xing, W. Chen, A. Liu, W. Zhou, T. Baba, K. Nozaki, and L. Chen, “High efficiency operation of butt joint line-defect-waveguide microlaser in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(8), 081109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TE-like (thin line) / TM-like (thick line) band structure of two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystal slab with cylindric airhole.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bragg diffraction conditions at Γ2 (in-plane (a) and out-of-plane (b)).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Band structure of TE-like modes around Γ2 point. (b) Electromagnetic field distributions of corresponding Γ2 modes in one unit cell. Arrows indicate the electric vectors, and the brightness variation displays the distribution of magnetic intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic structure of the LC-PCSEL. (b) and (c) are the PC SEMs of the side view and top view, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra of Co-APC and Cy-APC. The top and bottom apertures of the cone-like airhole are 360 nm and 240 nm, respectively. The cylinder-like airhole has one of apertures of cone-like airhole. The marked circles 1, 2, and 3 represent Fano resonances at three different wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (b), (c) Transmission spectra of Co-APC as the bottom aperture, top aperture, and both are increased, respectively. D is the diameter of airhole in nm. (d) Transmission spectra of Co-APC when the depth of airhole and the thickness of slab are increased simultaneously. H represents the depth of the airhole in μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Model transformation from cone-like airhole to cylinder-like airhole.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission spectra of Co-APC and Cy-APCs with different apertures.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Distribution of the magnetic field amplitude for (a) resonant mode 1 with wavelength of 1.5291 μm in Co-APC cell, (b) resonant mode near to mode 1 with wavelength of 1.5293 μm in Cy-APC cell with aperture of 291 nm, (c) resonant mode 2 with wavelength of 1.4546 μm in Co-APC cell, and (d) resonant mode near to mode 2 with wavelength of 1.4538 μm in Cy-APC cell with aperture of 311 nm. The inset gives the coordinate and parameters of Co-APC cell.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Distribution of the magnetic field amplitude for the incident light with wavelength of 1.572 μm in Co-APC cell (a) and Cy-APC cells with apertures of (b) 302 nm, (c) 291 nm, (d) 311 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Equivalent model of LC-PCSEL.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Longitudinal (a) and lateral (b) light energe distribution cross sections of LC-PCSEL. The unit for axes is μm, and the colorbar dB.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Light-current-voltage curve of LC-PCSEL.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Surface-emitting spectrum of LC-PCSEL.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

The longitudinal and lateral divergence angles of LC-PCSEL.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Q factors of four Γ2 modes

Equations (4)

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n 1 ( 1 V cone / V cubic )+ n air V cone / V cubic = n 1 ( 1 V cylinder / V cubic )+ n air V cylinder / V cubic ,
1 Q tot = 1 Q rad + 1 Q nonrad ,
1 Q nonrad = 1 Q FP + 1 Q PC + 1 Q abs .
η rad = 1/ Q rad 1/ Q tot .

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