Abstract

Directional couplers (DCs) based on long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs) operating at telecom wavelengths are studied both numerically and experimentally. The investigated LR-DLSPPWs are formed by ~1.2-µm-high and 1-µm-wide polymer ridges fabricated atop of 15-nm-thick and 500-nm-wide gold stripes supported by a 288-nm-thick Ormoclear polymer deposited on a low-index (ns ≈1.34) layer of Cytop. DC structures consisting of sine-shaped S-bends (having an offset of ~10 µm over a distance of ~20 µm) and ~100-µm-long parallel LR-DLSPPWs with a center-to-center separation of 2 µm are characterized using scanning near-field microscopy. The experimentally obtained values of the propagation length (~400 µm), S-bend loss (~4 dB) and coupling length (~100 µm) are found in good agreement with the numerical simulations, indicating a significant potential of LR-DLSPPWs for the realization of various plasmonic components.

© 2013 OSA

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G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Garcia, V. Coello, Z. Han, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Partial loss compensation in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(7), 7771–7776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zehnder interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(15), 16300–16309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. Gregersen, “Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves,” Appl. Opt.45(17), 4054–4061 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B66(3), 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1975 (1)

M. Heiblum and J. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Albrektsen, O.

Andersen, T. B.

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apostolopoulos, D.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

Avramopoulos, H.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baus, M.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnaya, E. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zehnder interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(15), 16300–16309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Garcia, V. Coello, Z. Han, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Partial loss compensation in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(7), 7771–7776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, M. G. Nielsen, K. Leosson, H. Keshmiri, J. Gosciniak, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4278–4280 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, T. Holmgaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(10), 1473–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. Gregersen, “Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves,” Appl. Opt.45(17), 4054–4061 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coello, V.

Dereux, A.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zehnder interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(15), 16300–16309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, C.

Giannoulis, G.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gosciniak, J.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregersen, N.

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z.

Harris, J.

M. Heiblum and J. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, K.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heiblum, M.

M. Heiblum and J. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

J. Gosciniak, T. Holmgaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(10), 1473–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

John, R.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Kalavrouziotis, D.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Karl, M.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Keshmiri, H.

Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.

Knickerbocker, J. U.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Krasavin, A. V.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

Kriezis, E. E.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwark, Y.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

Leosson, K.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maradudin, A. A.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B66(3), 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zehnder interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(15), 16300–16309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S. J.

Morimoto, A.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. G.

Novikov, I. V.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B66(3), 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Papaioannou, S.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pitilakis, A. K.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pleros, N.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quinten, M.

Radko, I. P.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Tekin, T.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, C. K.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

Tsilipakos, O.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Yu. A.

Vohnsen, B.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

Vyrsokinos, K.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamagishi, S.

Zayats, A. V.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Heiblum and J. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing based photonic integrated circuits on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(5), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B66(3), 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004).

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology (2010), pp. 58–65.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

H. Micro Resist Technology Gmb, Berlin, Germany, www.microresist.de .

E. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic layout for the cross section of the fabricated LR-DLSPPW structure. All sizes except the metal stripe thickness are to scale. (b), (c) Fundamental LR-DLSPPW mode electric field distribution (components that are perpendicular and parallel to the surface, respectively), calculated at λ = 1500 nm (the size of panels: 4.5 × 3 μm2). (d) Optical microscope top-view image of sample (straight waveguide) and (e) coupling arrangement superimposed with the far-field image taken at the wavelength λ = 1500 nm. (f) Cross-sections of topographical and near-field optical images (shown as insets) taken on the same waveguide with different SNOM probes at λ = 1500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical microscope top-view image of sample (S-bend) and (b) coupling arrangement superimposed with the far-field image taken at the wavelength λ = 1450 nm. (c) Pseudocolor topographical and (d) near-field optical images taken at λ = 1450 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission through 90-degrees bend as functions of the bending radius at λ = 1450 and 1500 nm. The inset shows schematic layout of 90-degrees bend. (b), (c) Distribution of the dominating electric field Ey for bending radius of 20 and 100 µm, respectively, showing strong leaky radiation for smaller bending radius. The size of panels: 9 × 4.5 μm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical microscope top-view image of sample (directional coupler) and (b), (c) coupling arrangement superimposed with the far-field image taken at the wavelength of λ = 1450 and 1525 nm, respectively. Red arrow indicates the main waveguide, where the inputted mode was excited. (d) Pseudocolor topographical and (e) near-field optical images taken at λ = 1500 nm. Center-to-center separation between waveguides is 2 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b) Ey-field distribution of even and odd modes, respectively, for center-to-center separation d = 2 μm at λ = 1500 nm. The size of panels: 6 × 3 μm2. (c) Effective mode indexes (for even and odd modes, single LR-DLSPPW mode, and refractive index of substrate) and propagation/coupling length as a function of center-to-center separation distance d at fixed excitation wavelength λ = 1500 nm (experimental datum is represented by a hollow circle). (d) Effective mode indexes and coupling length as a function of free-space excitation wavelength λ at fixed center-to-center separation distance d = 2 µm (experimental data are represented by hollow circles).

Equations (1)

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( u+iv )= r bend ln[ ( x+iz ) / r bend ],

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