Abstract

Recently, amplification of harmonic-seeded radiation generated through femtosecond laser filamentation in air has been observed, giving rise to coherent emissions at wavelengths corresponding to transitions between different vibrational levels of the electronic B2Σu+ and X2Σg+ states of molecular nitrogen ions [Phys. Rev. A. 84, 051802(R) (2011)]. Here, we carry out systematic investigations on its physical mechanism. Our experimental results do not support the speculation that such excellent coherent emissions could originate from nonlinear optical processes such as four-wave mixing or stimulated Raman scattering, leaving stimulated amplification of harmonic seed due to the population inversion generated in molecular nitrogen ions the most likely mechanism.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013

S. L. Chin, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and K. Yamanouchi, “Natural population inversion in a gaseous molecular filament,” Chin. Opt. Lett.11(1), 013201–013203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, K. E. Dorfman, A. M. Zheltikov, and M. O. Scully, “Plasma-assisted coherent backscattering for standoff spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 987–989 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamention in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic nonlinear X waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(25), 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1981

I. M. Littlewood and C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the N2+ laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.14(7), 1195–1206 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, M. G. Raymer, P. Narum, and D. J. Harter, “Four-wave parametric interactions in a strongly driven two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A24(1), 411–423 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ališauskas, S.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andiukaitis, G.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, M. G. Raymer, P. Narum, and D. J. Harter, “Four-wave parametric interactions in a strongly driven two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A24(1), 411–423 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Calderón, O. G.

A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

Cheng, Y.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and K. Yamanouchi, “Natural population inversion in a gaseous molecular filament,” Chin. Opt. Lett.11(1), 013201–013203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and K. Yamanouchi, “Natural population inversion in a gaseous molecular filament,” Chin. Opt. Lett.11(1), 013201–013203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, W.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamention in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorfman, K. E.

Eislöffel, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harter, D. J.

R. W. Boyd, M. G. Raymer, P. Narum, and D. J. Harter, “Four-wave parametric interactions in a strongly driven two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A24(1), 411–423 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hatzes, A. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, F.

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jing, C.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kartashov, D.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic nonlinear X waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(25), 253901 (2004).
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A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, A. S.

Laux, U.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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I. M. Littlewood and C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the N2+ laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.14(7), 1195–1206 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mejean, G.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
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A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
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Miles, R. B.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic nonlinear X waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(25), 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamention in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narum, P.

R. W. Boyd, M. G. Raymer, P. Narum, and D. J. Harter, “Four-wave parametric interactions in a strongly driven two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A24(1), 411–423 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pugžlys, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

R. W. Boyd, M. G. Raymer, P. Narum, and D. J. Harter, “Four-wave parametric interactions in a strongly driven two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A24(1), 411–423 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholz, A.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

Shneider, M.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stecklum, B.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, C. E.

I. M. Littlewood and C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the N2+ laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.14(7), 1195–1206 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woste, L.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic nonlinear X waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(25), 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, H.

H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and K. Yamanouchi, “Natural population inversion in a gaseous molecular filament,” Chin. Opt. Lett.11(1), 013201–013203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

S. L. Chin, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and K. Yamanouchi, “Natural population inversion in a gaseous molecular filament,” Chin. Opt. Lett.11(1), 013201–013203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamanouchi, K.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, L.

Zeng, B.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

Appl. Phys. B

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Xiong, R. Li, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “X-shaped third harmonic generated by ultrashort infrared pulse filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys.83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

Europhys. Lett.

W. Chu, B. Zeng, J. Yao, H. Xu, J. Ni, G. Li, H. Zhang, F. He, C. Jing, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Multiwavelength amplified harmonic emissions from carbon dioxide pumped by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Europhys. Lett.97(6), 64004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

I. M. Littlewood and C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the N2+ laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.14(7), 1195–1206 (1981).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys.15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rep.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamention in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, M. G. Raymer, P. Narum, and D. J. Harter, “Four-wave parametric interactions in a strongly driven two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A24(1), 411–423 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(3), 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic nonlinear X waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(25), 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Chin, O. G. Calderón, and J. Kono, “Extreme midinfrared nonlinear optics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(15), 3292–3295 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, Berlin, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Typical schematic of the interaction of nitrogen molecules with two color pulses. Inset: the strong and coherent emission with ~0.3 nm bandwidth (FWHM) appearing on the spectrum of the probe pulse. (b) Energy-level diagram of ionized and neutral nitrogen molecules in which the vibrational transition between B2Σu+ (v = 0) and X2Σg+ (v = 0) states corresponding to 391.4 nm wavelength [10] is indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup for the counterpropagating pump and probe pulses configuration. (b) Measured spectra of the probe pulses before and after the laser spark. (c) Measured Intensities of the coherent emission line at ~391 nm at different delay times.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) Measured spectra of the probe pulses with one of the dip positions of the modulated harmonic spectrum located at 391.4 nm. (c) Measured spectra of the probe pulses with one of the peak positions of the modulated harmonic spectrum located at 391.4 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured spectra of the probe pulse in the present and absent of the pump pulse. (b) Measured dependence of the 391.4 nm output signal on the input probe power.

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