Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

2012 (7)

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, J. Safioui, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, S. Gorza, P. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Low-power inelastic light scattering at small detunings in silicon wire waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(8), 1977–1982 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, and G. Weihs, “Monolithic source of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(15), 153605 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Matsuda, H. Le Jeannic, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, W. J. Munro, K. Shimizu, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and H. Takesue, “A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip,” Sci. Rep.2, 817 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 115–143 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O'Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys.14(4), 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun.3, 1325 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O'Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun.2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-S. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A83(4), 043814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, C. Monat, A. S. Clark, C. Grillet, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, J. G. Rarity, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3413–3415 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Matsuda, T. Kato, K. Harada, H. Takesue, E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Slow light enhanced optical nonlinearity in a silicon photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide,” Opt. Express19(21), 19861–19874 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

C. Xiong, L. G. Helt, A. C. Judge, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. E. Sipe, and B. J. Eggleton, “Quantum-correlated photon pair generation in chalcogenide As2S3 waveguides,” Opt. Express18(15), 16206–16216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in periodic structures,” J. Opt.12(10), 104003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. OBrien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-I. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. F. Krauss, “Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(9), 2666–2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, K. F. Lee, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and P. Kumar, “Generation of correlated photons in nanoscale silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express14(25), 12388–12393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105km fibre,” New J. Phys.7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell's inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 031802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Quantum-enhanced measurements: beating the standard quantum limit,” Science306(5700), 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys.74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A66(5), 053805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(7), 983–985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Raussendorf and H. J. Briegel, “A one-way quantum computer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(22), 5188–5191 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(24), 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang, and L. Mandel, “Violation of classical probability in parametric down-conversion,” Opt. Commun.84(5-6), 351–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abolghasem, P.

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, and G. Weihs, “Monolithic source of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(15), 153605 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agha, I.

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alibart, O.

S. Tanzilli, A. Martin, F. Kaiser, M. P. De Micheli, O. Alibart, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “On the genesis and evolution of integrated quantum optics,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 115–143 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Baets, R. G.

Bijlani, B. J.

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, and G. Weihs, “Monolithic source of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(15), 153605 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bongioanni, I.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun.2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonneau, D.

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O'Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys.14(4), 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O'Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Branning, D.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A66(5), 053805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Briegel, H. J.

R. Raussendorf and H. J. Briegel, “A one-way quantum computer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(22), 5188–5191 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bromberg, Y.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. OBrien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castelletto, S.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A66(5), 053805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. S.

A. S. Clark, C. Husko, M. J. Collins, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Heralded single-photon source in a III-V photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 649–651 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, C. Monat, A. S. Clark, C. Grillet, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, J. G. Rarity, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3413–3415 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O'Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clemmen, S.

Collins, M. J.

Combrié, S.

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun.2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. OBrien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
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J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulation of multiphoton entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 346–350 (2009).
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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. OBrien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
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A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun.2, 566 (2011).
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A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. OBrien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
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H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201108 (2007).
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W. H. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun.3, 1325 (2012).
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K.-I. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 325–331 (2010).
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H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201108 (2007).
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H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(20), 201108 (2007).
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N. Matsuda, H. Le Jeannic, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, W. J. Munro, K. Shimizu, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and H. Takesue, “A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip,” Sci. Rep.2, 817 (2012).
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H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105km fibre,” New J. Phys.7, 232 (2005).
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M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(25), 253902 (2001).
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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys.74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O'Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081110 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A CROW consisting of photonic-crystal mode-gap nanocavities (top) and a reference waveguide implemented without a CROW (bottom). (c) Linear transmission spectra of the CROW and the reference waveguide. We also show the center wavelength of the pump pulses and the transmission window of the wavelength-division-multiplexing filter used for the spontaneous FWM experiment (see section 3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. IM: intensity modulator, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, BPF: band-pass filter, HWP: half-wave plate, AWG: arrayed-waveguide grating, SPCM: single-photon counting module, TIA: time-interval analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Net photon generation rate from various waveguides as a function of the coupled average pump power P. Dashed lines represent fitting results by P2. (b) CAR values and (c) the net photon generation rate inside the wavelength band for the signal photons versus P. In (b), the solid and dashed curves are estimated CAR values (calculated in accordance with the procedure in Ref. 11) with and without the dark count rate, respectively. In (c), the dashed curve shows second-order polynomial fitting.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Zou-Wang-Mandel parameter V and violation extent of classicality V/σ, as a function of P.

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