Abstract

Taking advantage of relatively strong Rayleigh scattering and Raman gain of dispersion compensated fiber (DCF), three configurations to form efficient random fiber lasers (RFL) are proposed in this paper. Compared with the reported RFL formed by single-mode fiber (SMF) solely, lasing threshold and length of the proposed RFL are effectively reduced through combination of DCF and SMF. In addition, FBGs with central wavelengths at the 1st and 2nd -order Raman Stokes wavelengths are also added to the hybrid SMF/DCF cavity to further reduce the lasing threshold, leading to realization of a new kind of 2nd-order RFL.

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References

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  1. Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6088–6092 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and C. G. Jørgensen, “High-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers by use of a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2163–2165 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: An incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Nuño, M. Alcon-Camas, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “RIN transfer in random distributed feedback fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27376–27381 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. N. Wang, Y. J. Rao, H. Wu, P. Y. Li, Y. Jiang, X. H. Jia, and W. L. Zhang, “Long-distance fiber-optic point-sensing systems based on random fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17695–17700 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength raman fiber lasers using Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirrors combined with random cavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(10), 1482–1488 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 ?m,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia, “Low threshold 2nd-order random lasing of a fiber laser with a half-opened cavity,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14400–14405 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. K. Zamzuri, M. I. Md Ali, A. Ahmad, R. Mohamad, and M. A. Mahdi, “Brillouin-Raman comb fiber laser with cooperative Rayleigh scattering in a linear cavity,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 918–920 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

2010

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: An incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Frazão, C. Correia, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Raman fibre Bragg-grating laser sensor with cooperative Rayleigh scattering for strain–temperature measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(4), 045203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2004

Abeeluck, A. K.

Ahmad, A.

Alcon-Camas, M.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

Babin, S. A.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 ?m,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazão, C. Correia, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Raman fibre Bragg-grating laser sensor with cooperative Rayleigh scattering for strain–temperature measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(4), 045203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, M.

Brito-Silva, A. M.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churkin, D. V.

Correia, C.

O. Frazão, C. Correia, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Raman fibre Bragg-grating laser sensor with cooperative Rayleigh scattering for strain–temperature measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(4), 045203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de S Menezes, L.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Taher, A. E.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Vallejo, M.

Fotiadi, A. A.

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: An incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength raman fiber lasers using Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirrors combined with random cavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(10), 1482–1488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, C. Correia, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Raman fibre Bragg-grating laser sensor with cooperative Rayleigh scattering for strain–temperature measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(4), 045203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harper, P.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

Jeong, Y.

Jia, X. H.

Jiang, Y.

Jørgensen, C. G.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karalekas, V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

Li, P. Y.

Lopez-Amo, M.

Mahdi, M. A.

Martinez Gámez, M. A.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Md Ali, M. I.

Mohamad, R.

Nilsson, J.

Nuño, J.

Payne, D. N.

Pinto, A. M. R.

Podivilov, E. V.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Sahu, J. K.

Santos, J. L.

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength raman fiber lasers using Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirrors combined with random cavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(10), 1482–1488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, C. Correia, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Raman fibre Bragg-grating laser sensor with cooperative Rayleigh scattering for strain–temperature measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(4), 045203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

Turitsyn, S. K.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 ?m,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vatnik, I. D.

Wang, Z. N.

Wu, H.

Yang, Z. X.

Zamzuri, A. K.

Zhang, W. L.

Zhu, J. M.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

O. Frazão, C. Correia, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Raman fibre Bragg-grating laser sensor with cooperative Rayleigh scattering for strain–temperature measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(4), 045203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: An incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 ?m,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia, “Low threshold 2nd-order random lasing of a fiber laser with a half-opened cavity,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14400–14405 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. N. Wang, Y. J. Rao, H. Wu, P. Y. Li, Y. Jiang, X. H. Jia, and W. L. Zhang, “Long-distance fiber-optic point-sensing systems based on random fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17695–17700 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nuño, M. Alcon-Camas, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “RIN transfer in random distributed feedback fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27376–27381 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Photonic Sensors

Y. J. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photonic Sensors 1(4), 382–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the RFL WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output spectra of RFL in regime I; (a) case 1, (b) case 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power of regime I as a function of pump power. The dot and the triangle correspond to the 1st-order RL of case 1 and case 2, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output power of regime II as a function of pump power. The dot and the triangle correspond to 1st-order RL of case 1 and case 2, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output power as a function of pump power (a) Backward output; (b) Forward output.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output spectra of regime III of the RFL for different values of pump power Pp. (a) 1st-order Stokes light; (b) 2nd-order Stokes light.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Description of the three regimes studied

Metrics