Abstract

A precisely controlled metallic nanomesh was fabricated by using nanosphere lithography to pattern the silver thin film to form hexagonal nanohole arrays with excellent uniformity, high conductivity and good transparency. An Alq3 based OLED, with the silver nanomesh electrode of high ðll factor of 70.2% demonstrated a considerable luminous efðciency of 4.8 cd/A, which is 60.9% higher than the referenced device with ITO anode. The periodical nanohole array not only increased the transparency but also helped extracting surface plasmonic wave in organic layers. By attaching the microlens array to further extract the trapped light in substrate, the extraction efficiency enhancement of device with nanomesh anode was 73.8% higher than 50.2% of the referenced device with ITO anode. And the overall current efficiency of device with nanomesh anode was 87.7% higher than traditional ITO based device.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  8. C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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  22. Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, S. Y. Yu, and Y. T. Tao, “Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection,” Langmuir25(11), 6232–6238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Yang and S. Forrest, “Organic solar cells using transparent SnO2–F anodes,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 2018–2022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater.18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Jain and R. Kumar, “Electrical and optical properties of tin oxide and antimony doped tin oxide films,” Opt. Mater.26(1), 27–31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hoffman, B. Norris, and J. Wager, “ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(5), 733–735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, F. Wong, M. Fung, and S. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Izaki and T. Omi, “Transparent zinc oxide films prepared by electrochemical reaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(17), 2439–2440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. T.

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. Y.

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-O.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, C. W.

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cinà, S.

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cong, C.

C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang and S. Forrest, “Organic solar cells using transparent SnO2–F anodes,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 2018–2022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fung, M.

X. Jiang, F. Wong, M. Fung, and S. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gifford, D. K.

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, A.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. H.

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, R.

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, R.

R. Hoffman, B. Norris, and J. Wager, “ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(5), 733–735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, S. Y.

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D. W.

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater.18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Izaki, M.

M. Izaki and T. Omi, “Transparent zinc oxide films prepared by electrochemical reaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(17), 2439–2440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jain, G.

G. Jain and R. Kumar, “Electrical and optical properties of tin oxide and antimony doped tin oxide films,” Opt. Mater.26(1), 27–31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, F. Wong, M. Fung, and S. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

G. Jain and R. Kumar, “Electrical and optical properties of tin oxide and antimony doped tin oxide films,” Opt. Mater.26(1), 27–31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. H.

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. L.

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. C.

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

X. Jiang, F. Wong, M. Fung, and S. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater.18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. W.

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norris, B.

R. Hoffman, B. Norris, and J. Wager, “ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(5), 733–735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omi, T.

M. Izaki and T. Omi, “Transparent zinc oxide films prepared by electrochemical reaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(17), 2439–2440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. K.

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robles, R. O.

C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.

C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y. T.

K. Y. Wu, S. Y. Yu, and Y. T. Tao, “Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection,” Langmuir25(11), 6232–6238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, W. C.

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wager, J.

R. Hoffman, B. Norris, and J. Wager, “ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(5), 733–735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. L.

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P. K.

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P.-K.

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. D.

C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F.

X. Jiang, F. Wong, M. Fung, and S. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. I.

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater.18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K. Y.

K. Y. Wu, S. Y. Yu, and Y. T. Tao, “Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection,” Langmuir25(11), 6232–6238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiu, F.

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater.18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xue, M.

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang and S. Forrest, “Organic solar cells using transparent SnO2–F anodes,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 2018–2022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater.18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. Y.

K. Y. Wu, S. Y. Yu, and Y. T. Tao, “Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection,” Langmuir25(11), 6232–6238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B.

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater.18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang and S. Forrest, “Organic solar cells using transparent SnO2–F anodes,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 2018–2022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Izaki and T. Omi, “Transparent zinc oxide films prepared by electrochemical reaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(17), 2439–2440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Hoffman, B. Norris, and J. Wager, “ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(5), 733–735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, F. Wong, M. Fung, and S. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

K. Y. Wu, S. Y. Yu, and Y. T. Tao, “Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection,” Langmuir25(11), 6232–6238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater.

G. Jain and R. Kumar, “Electrical and optical properties of tin oxide and antimony doped tin oxide films,” Opt. Mater.26(1), 27–31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process of an OLED with Ag nanomesh anode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of close-packed PS nanospheres with different etching conditions: (a) RIE power of 60W for 5 minutes (fill-factor: 0.70), (b) RIE power of 60W for 5 minutes and 30W for 3 minutes (fill-factor: 0.58), (c) RIE power of 60W for 5 minutes and 30W for 6 minutes (fill-factor: 0.55), and (d) diameter and fill-factor of PS nanosphere as a function of etching time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of silver nanomesh by using nanospheres with different etching conditions: (a) RIE power of 60W for 5 minutes (fill-factor: 0.70), (b) RIE power of 60W for 5 minutes and 30W for 3 minutes (fill-factor: 0.58), (c) RIE power of 60W for 5 minutes and 30W for 6 minutes (fill-factor: 0.55). Transmittance of (d) 15 nm and (e) 10 nm Ag thin film. (f) Relation between sheet resistance and average visible transmittance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V curves (inset: optical images of OLEDs with different kinds of anodes), (b) current efficiency versus current density, (c) luminous spectra without microlens array film attachment, and (d) luminous spectra with microlens array film attachment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) SEM images of microlens array, (b) angle-dependent luminance of OLED, (c) angle-dependent luminance of OLED attached with microlens array film, and (d) luminous enhancement ratio at different viewing angle (injection current: 60 mA/cm2)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light extraction of trapped photons in glass substrate (ray I) and organic layers (ray II) of bottom emission OLED. (a) Planar transparent anode, (b) patterned transparent anode, and (c) patterned transparent anode with microlens array attachment.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2π λ 0 n b sin θ b ±m 2π Λ = k glass = 2π λ 0 n b
2π λ 0 n b sin θ b ±m 2π Λ = k spp == 2π λ 0 ε m n f 2 ( ε m + n f 2 )

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