Abstract

A high aspect ratio conical sub-wavelength structure (SWS) was designed by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method and was realized on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film using a stamping technique. The silicon template containing a hexagonal array of conical holes with a period of 350 nm and an aspect ratio of 2.8 was fabricated by electron-beam (e-beam) lithography followed by a two-step etching process. The SWS with a high aspect ratio was easily transferred from the fabricated silicon template to PMMA film using the stamping method. The replicated PMMA SWS has an array of cones with nanoscale tips and an aspect ratio higher than 2.8. The average reflectance and transmittance of the PMMA film with the conical SWS in the wavelength ranging from 500 and 1500 nm was improved from 7.1 and 91.1% to 4.3 and 94.2%, respectively, as compared to flat PMMA film.

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2011 (2)

D. S. Kim, M. S. Park, and J. H. Jang, “Fabrication of a cone-shaped subwavelength structures by utilizing a confined convective self-assembly technique and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(2), 020602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shin, K. S. Han, and H. Lee, “Anti-reflection and hydrophobic characteristics of M-PDMS based moth-eye nano-patterns on protection glass of photovoltaic systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(3), 339–344 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Chiu, C. H. Chang, M. A. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, and P. C. Yu, “Improved optical transmission and current matching of a triple-junction solar cell utilizing sub-wavelength structures,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A308–A313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, and E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Design of highly transparent glasses with broadband antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express18(12), 13063–13071 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Y. M. Song, S. Y. Bae, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Closely packed and aspect-ratio-controlled antireflection subwavelength gratings on GaAs using a lenslike shape transfer,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1702–1704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Han, H. Lee, D. Kim, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of anti-reflection structure on protective layer of solar cells by hot-embossing method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1214–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Tsai and C. J. Ting, “Optical characteristics of moth-eye structures on poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate sheets fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(6), 06FH19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Nam, J. H. Kim, D. Y. Jung, J. B. Park, and H. S. Lee, “Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(16), 5134–5140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Li, S. Minoru, and H. Kazuhiro, “Micro-optical components based on silicon mold technology,” Opt. Lasers Eng.41(3), 545–552 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Kanamori and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection subwavelength gratings for polymethyl methacrylate fabricated with molding technique,” Opt. Rev.9(5), 183–185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

O. Dial, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication of high-density nanostructures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(6), 3887–3890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

Abbott, S.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S. Y.

Bolten, J.

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. H.

Chang, E. Y.

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, and E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, F. Y.

Chang, Y. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. Y.

J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

O. Dial, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication of high-density nanostructures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(6), 3887–3890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, M. Y.

Choi, H. J.

Chou, C. P.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, S. Y.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dial, O.

O. Dial, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication of high-density nanostructures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(6), 3887–3890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. C.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ge, H.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Han, K. S.

J. H. Shin, K. S. Han, and H. Lee, “Anti-reflection and hydrophobic characteristics of M-PDMS based moth-eye nano-patterns on protection glass of photovoltaic systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(3), 339–344 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Han, H. Lee, D. Kim, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of anti-reflection structure on protective layer of solar cells by hot-embossing method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1214–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection subwavelength gratings for polymethyl methacrylate fabricated with molding technique,” Opt. Rev.9(5), 183–185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horita, S.

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y. K.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M. C.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. F.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, G.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. H.

D. S. Kim, M. S. Park, and J. H. Jang, “Fabrication of a cone-shaped subwavelength structures by utilizing a confined convective self-assembly technique and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(2), 020602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y. J.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, J. H.

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, D. Y.

H. J. Nam, J. H. Kim, D. Y. Jung, J. B. Park, and H. S. Lee, “Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(16), 5134–5140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection subwavelength gratings for polymethyl methacrylate fabricated with molding technique,” Opt. Rev.9(5), 183–185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazuhiro, H.

Y. Li, S. Minoru, and H. Kazuhiro, “Micro-optical components based on silicon mold technology,” Opt. Lasers Eng.41(3), 545–552 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

K. S. Han, H. Lee, D. Kim, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of anti-reflection structure on protective layer of solar cells by hot-embossing method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1214–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim, M. S. Park, and J. H. Jang, “Fabrication of a cone-shaped subwavelength structures by utilizing a confined convective self-assembly technique and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(2), 020602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

H. J. Nam, J. H. Kim, D. Y. Jung, J. B. Park, and H. S. Lee, “Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(16), 5134–5140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koo, N.

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E. S.

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

J. H. Shin, K. S. Han, and H. Lee, “Anti-reflection and hydrophobic characteristics of M-PDMS based moth-eye nano-patterns on protection glass of photovoltaic systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(3), 339–344 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Han, H. Lee, D. Kim, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of anti-reflection structure on protective layer of solar cells by hot-embossing method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1214–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Han, H. Lee, D. Kim, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of anti-reflection structure on protective layer of solar cells by hot-embossing method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1214–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

H. J. Nam, J. H. Kim, D. Y. Jung, J. B. Park, and H. S. Lee, “Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(16), 5134–5140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Li, Y.

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, and E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. Minoru, and H. Kazuhiro, “Micro-optical components based on silicon mold technology,” Opt. Lasers Eng.41(3), 545–552 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. A.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumura, H.

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minoru, S.

Y. Li, S. Minoru, and H. Kazuhiro, “Micro-optical components based on silicon mold technology,” Opt. Lasers Eng.41(3), 545–552 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, G. M.

Nam, H. J.

H. J. Nam, J. H. Kim, D. Y. Jung, J. B. Park, and H. S. Lee, “Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(16), 5134–5140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, K.

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohdaira, K.

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Otto, M.

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C. L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. B.

H. J. Nam, J. H. Kim, D. Y. Jung, J. B. Park, and H. S. Lee, “Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(16), 5134–5140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, M. S.

D. S. Kim, M. S. Park, and J. H. Jang, “Fabrication of a cone-shaped subwavelength structures by utilizing a confined convective self-assembly technique and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(2), 020602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C. Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plachetka, U.

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pommet, D. A.

Raguin, D. H.

Sahoo, K. C.

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, and E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Dial, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication of high-density nanostructures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(6), 3887–3890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

J. H. Shin, K. S. Han, and H. Lee, “Anti-reflection and hydrophobic characteristics of M-PDMS based moth-eye nano-patterns on protection glass of photovoltaic systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(3), 339–344 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Sun, K. W.

J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ting, C. J.

H. Y. Tsai and C. J. Ting, “Optical characteristics of moth-eye structures on poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate sheets fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(6), 06FH19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, H. Y.

H. Y. Tsai and C. J. Ting, “Optical characteristics of moth-eye structures on poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate sheets fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(6), 06FH19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. A.

Wang, W. N.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yu, P. C.

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

H. J. Nam, J. H. Kim, D. Y. Jung, J. B. Park, and H. S. Lee, “Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(16), 5134–5140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, and E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

O. Dial, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication of high-density nanostructures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(6), 3887–3890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, M. S. Park, and J. H. Jang, “Fabrication of a cone-shaped subwavelength structures by utilizing a confined convective self-assembly technique and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(2), 020602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Y. Tsai and C. J. Ting, “Optical characteristics of moth-eye structures on poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate sheets fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(6), 06FH19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Y. Li, S. Minoru, and H. Kazuhiro, “Micro-optical components based on silicon mold technology,” Opt. Lasers Eng.41(3), 545–552 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

Y. Kanamori and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection subwavelength gratings for polymethyl methacrylate fabricated with molding technique,” Opt. Rev.9(5), 183–185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

J. H. Shin, K. S. Han, and H. Lee, “Anti-reflection and hydrophobic characteristics of M-PDMS based moth-eye nano-patterns on protection glass of photovoltaic systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(3), 339–344 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Han, H. Lee, D. Kim, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of anti-reflection structure on protective layer of solar cells by hot-embossing method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1214–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filter, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The fabrication process sequence of the silicon template and conical PMMA SWS

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated average reflectance of the PMMA film with the conical and truncated conical SWS as a function of the height of the SWS in wavelengths ranging from 300 to 1500 nm

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated reflectance of the (a) conical PMMA SWSs with heights of 0, 250, 500, and 750 nm (b) truncated conical PMMA SWSs with tip sizes of 0, 50, 100, and 150 nm

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated reflectance of the PMMA SWS from different silicon templates fabricated by the ICP-RIE process with times of 5, 6, and 7 minutes

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) SEM images of the SiO2 layer patterned by different wet etching times of 75, 100, 125, and 150 seconds, and (b) dependence of the hole diameter on the wet etching time

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM images of silicon templates fabricated using the ICP-RIE etching process after a wet etching process with different etching times. The detailed etching parameters are shown in the insets of each figure. The insets of Figs. 6(a) and 6(d) are high-magnification images of the etch mask before the ICP-RIE etching process.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) top and (b) cross-sectional SEM images of a silicon template consisting of a hexagonal pattern with a period of 350 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SEM images of replicated PMMA film with a conical SWS. A separating process was performed at temperatures of (a) 40 and (b) 60°C, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Comparison of the simulated and measured reflectance of the PMMA films and (b) the measured transmittance for PMMA film with and without conical SWS

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Materials, Shapes, Periods, Heights and Aspect Ratio of the Various SWSs

Metrics