Abstract

The performance of nitride-based LEDs was improved by inserting dual stage and step stage InGaN/GaN strain relief layer (SRL) between the active layer and n-GaN template. The influences of step stage InGaN/GaN SRL on the structure, electrical and optical characteristics of GaN-based LEDs were investigated. The analysis of strain effect on recombination rate based kp method indicated 12.5% reduction of strain in InGaN/GaN MQWs by inserting SRL with step stage InGaN/GaN structures. The surface morphology was improved and a smaller blue shift in the electroluminescence (EL) spectral with increasing injection current was observed for LEDs with step stage SRL compared with conventional LEDs. The output power of LEDs operating at 20mA was about 15.3mW, increased by more than 108% by using step stage InGaN/GaN SRL, which shows great potential of such InGaN/GaN SRL in modulating InGaN/GaN MQWs optical properties based on its strain relief function.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, C. Y. Tseng, S. C. Lin, and H. C. Hsu, “Improvement of light intensity for nitride-based multi-quantum well light emitting diodes by stepwise-stage electron emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).
  12. V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114303 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. C. Tsai, Y. K. Su, W. R. Chen, and C. Y. Huang, “Enhanced luminescence efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer and proper Si doping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DG07 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, C. Y. Tseng, S. C. Lin, and H. C. Hsu, “Improvement of light intensity for nitride-based multi-quantum well light emitting diodes by stepwise-stage electron emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Tsai, Y. K. Su, W. R. Chen, and C. Y. Huang, “Enhanced luminescence efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer and proper Si doping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DG07 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, T.

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bougrov, V. E.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. X.

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. C.

H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).

Chen, W. R.

P. C. Tsai, Y. K. Su, W. R. Chen, and C. Y. Huang, “Enhanced luminescence efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer and proper Si doping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DG07 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. Y.

H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C. H.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y. L.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, B. R.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. P.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gotoh, H.

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. C.

H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).

S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, C. Y. Tseng, S. C. Lin, and H. C. Hsu, “Improvement of light intensity for nitride-based multi-quantum well light emitting diodes by stepwise-stage electron emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

P. C. Tsai, Y. K. Su, W. R. Chen, and C. Y. Huang, “Enhanced luminescence efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer and proper Si doping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DG07 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. J.

H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).

S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, C. Y. Tseng, S. C. Lin, and H. C. Hsu, “Improvement of light intensity for nitride-based multi-quantum well light emitting diodes by stepwise-stage electron emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. M.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jang, C. H.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. H.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. H.

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. C.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. Y.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, M. J.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leem, S. J.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. M.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. C.

S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, C. Y. Tseng, S. C. Lin, and H. C. Hsu, “Improvement of light intensity for nitride-based multi-quantum well light emitting diodes by stepwise-stage electron emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. P.

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N. X.

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. M.

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makimoto, T.

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Niu, N. H.

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramesh, V.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Y. T.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, G. D.

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shey, J. K.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. C.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Y. G.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S. I.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).

S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, C. Y. Tseng, S. C. Lin, and H. C. Hsu, “Improvement of light intensity for nitride-based multi-quantum well light emitting diodes by stepwise-stage electron emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Tsai, Y. K. Su, W. R. Chen, and C. Y. Huang, “Enhanced luminescence efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer and proper Si doping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DG07 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y. M.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tackeuchi, A.

T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. M.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, P. C.

P. C. Tsai, Y. K. Su, W. R. Chen, and C. Y. Huang, “Enhanced luminescence efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer and proper Si doping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DG07 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C. Y.

H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).

S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, C. Y. Tseng, S. C. Lin, and H. C. Hsu, “Improvement of light intensity for nitride-based multi-quantum well light emitting diodes by stepwise-stage electron emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. B.

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. N.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Y. H.

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yavich, B. S.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. J. Huang, Y. K. Su, C. Y. Tseng, S. C. Lin, and H. C. Hsu, “Improvement of light intensity for nitride-based multi-quantum well light emitting diodes by stepwise-stage electron emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, and S. Y. Wang, “Pit formation in GaInN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(6), 710–712 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Kim, H. S. Park, Y. J. Park, and T. Kim, “Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and bulk InGaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1634–1636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Akasaka, H. Gotoh, T. Saito, and T. Makimoto, “High luminescent efficiency of InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on InGaN underlying layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(15), 3089–3091 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. H. Jang, J. K. Shey, C. M. Tsai, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-Based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Su, S. J. Huang, C. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Cheng, and K. C. Chen, “Enhanced Performance of Nitride-Based Blue LED With Step-Stage MQW Structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 287–289 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, K. C. Kim, E. H. Kim, Y. M. Sung, Y. Moon, S. M. Hwang, and T. G. Kim, “The effect of the low-mole InGaN structure and InGaN/GaN strained layer superlattices on optical performance of multiple quantum well active layers,” J. Cryst. Growth311(1), 103–106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Niu, H. B. Wang, J. P. Liu, N. X. Liu, Y. H. Xing, J. Han, J. Deng, and G. D. Shen, “Improved quality of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer,” J. Cryst. Growth286(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. C. Tsai, Y. K. Su, W. R. Chen, and C. Y. Huang, “Enhanced luminescence efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by a strain relief layer and proper Si doping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DG07 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

R. M. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Chiang, M. J. Lai, Y. L. Chou, Y. C. Lu, S. Y. Kuo, B. R. Fang, and M. C. Wu, “Inserting a low-temperature n-GaN underlying layer to separate nonradiative recombination centers improves the luminescence efficiency of blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab.50(5), 679–682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic diagram of LED with InGaN/GaN SRL; Illustration of TMIn flow rate for controlling the indium composition during the growth of (b) single stage MQW, (c) dual stage MQW and (d) step stage MQW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Strain effect on polarization field and overlap percentage of electrons and holes (b) measured PL spectra at room temperature and (c) calculated spontaneous emission spectra for InGaN/GaN MQW

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The HRXRD 2theta/omega scans of (0002) plane in single stage LED, dual stage LED and step stage LED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

5 × 5μm2 AFM images of InGaN/GaN MQWs (a) without SRL, (b) with dual stage SRL and (c) with step stage SRL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The EL spectra of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs (a) without SRL, (b) with dual stage SRL and (c) with step stage SRL, the spectra were measured with increasing injection current from 1mA to 20mA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output powers as functions of injection current for single stage, the dual stage and step stage MQW LED.

Metrics