Abstract

Efficient conversion of photonic to plasmonic energy is important for nano-optical applications, particularly imaging and spectroscopy. Recently a new generation of photonic/plasmonic transducers, the ‘campanile’ probes, has been developed that overcomes many shortcomings of previous near-field probes by efficiently merging broadband field enhancement with bidirectional coupling of far- to near-field electromagnetic modes. In this work we compare the properties of the campanile structure with those of current NSOM tips using finite element simulations. Field confinement, enhancement, and polarization near the apex of the probe are evaluated relative to local fields created by conical tapered tips in vacuum and in tip-substrate gap mode. We show that the campanile design has similar field enhancement and bandwidth capabilities as those of ultra-sharp metallized tips, but without the substrate and sample restrictions inherent in the tip-surface gap mode operation often required by those tips. In addition, we show for the first time that this campanile probe structure also significantly enhances the radiative rate of any dipole emitter located near the probe apex, quantifying the enhanced decay rate and demonstrating that over 90% of the light radiated by the emitter is “captured” by this probe. This is equivalent to collecting the light from a solid angle of ~3.6 pi. These advantages are crucial for performing techniques such as Raman and IR spectroscopy, white-light nano-ellipsometry and ultrafast pump-probe studies at the nanoscale.

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2012 (7)

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Developments in and Practical Guidelines for Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Nanoscale4(6), 1856–1870 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for Visible and Infrared Radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Light on the Tip of a Needle: Plasmonic Nanofocusing for Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(7), 945–952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a Metal-Insulator-Metal Gap Plasmon Waveguide with a Three-Dimensional Linear Taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit Analysis in Metal-Optics,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.10(1), 166–176 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Johnson, Z. J. Lapin, R. Beams, N. C. Lindquist, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Novotny, and S.-H. Oh, “Highly Reproducible near-Field Optical Imaging with Sub-20-Nm Resolution Based on Template-Stripped Gold Pyramids,” ACS Nano6(10), 9168–9174 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions Via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(3), 037402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of Mid-Infrared Energy with Tapered Transmission Lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-Hole Polarization Analyser for the Magnetic Vector of Light,” Nat. Commun.2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic Nanofocusing Scattering-Type Optical Nanoscopy of Individual Gold Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral Nanoscale Imaging on Dielectric Substrates with Coaxial Optical Antenna Scan Probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Neumann, Y. J. Pang, A. Houyou, M. L. Juan, R. Gordon, and N. F. van Hulst, “Extraordinary Optical Transmission Brightens near-Field Fiber Probe,” Nano Lett.11(2), 355–360 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Zayak, Y. S. Hu, H. Choo, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and J. B. Neaton, “Chemical Raman Enhancement of Organic Adsorbates on Metal Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(8), 083003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, “Oxides and Nitrides as Alternative Plasmonic Materials in the Optical Range [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1090–1099 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

J.-S. Bouillard, S. Vilain, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Scanning near-Field Optical Microscopy: Applications in Plasmonics,” Opt. Express18(16), 16513–16519 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale Chemical Imaging Using Top-Illumination Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4514–4520 (2010).
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K. F. Domke and B. Pettinger, “Studying Surface Chemistry Beyond the Diffraction Limit: 10 Years of Ters,” ChemPhysChem11(7), 1365–1373 (2010).
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F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale Chemical Mapping Using Three-Dimensional Adiabatic Compression of Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 67–72 (2010).
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C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-Field Localization in Plasmonic Superfocusing: A Nanoemitter on a Tip,” Nano Lett.10(2), 592–596 (2010).
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2009 (17)

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-Field Nano-Imaging and Superlensing,” Nat. Photonics3(7), 388–394 (2009).
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H. Eghlidi, K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Resolution and Enhancement in Nanoantenna-Based Fluorescence Microscopy,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4007–4011 (2009).
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Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Manipulating Nanoscale Light Fields with the Asymmetric Bowtie Nano-Colorsorter,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4505–4509 (2009).
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S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A Plasmonic Dimple Lens for Nanoscale Focusing of Light,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3447–3452 (2009).
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T. Deckert-Gaudig and V. Deckert, “Ultraflat Transparent Gold Nanoplates - Ideal Substrates for Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering Experiments,” Small5(4), 432–436 (2009).
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K. F. Domke and B. Pettinger, “In Situ Discrimination between Axially Complexed and Ligand-Free Co Porphyrin on Au(111) with Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem10(11), 1794–1798 (2009).
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D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-Space Mapping of the Strongly Coupled Plasmons of Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
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D. Roy, J. Wang, and C. Williams, “Novel Methodology for Estimating the Enhancement Factor for Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 013530 (2009).
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2008 (3)

A. Hartschuh, “Tip-Enhanced near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(43), 8178–8191 (2008).
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M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, M. A. Lieb, and A. J. Meixner, “Imaging Nanometre-Sized Hot Spots on Smooth Au Films with High-Resolution Tip-Enhanced Luminescence and Raman near-Field Optical Microscopy,” ChemPhysChem9(2), 316–320 (2008).
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Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nearfield Scanning Probe with High Transmission,” Nano Lett.8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
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2007 (6)

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-Coupling of Surface Plasmons onto Metallic Tips: A Nanoconfined Light Source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
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R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-Substrate Interaction in Optical near-Field Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B75(19), 195410 (2007).
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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector Field Microscopic Imaging of Light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
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D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, “Local Electric Field Enhancement During Nanofocusing of Plasmons by a Tapered Gap,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035431 (2007).
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E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, T. Akalin, and L. Desplanque, “Integrated Terahertz Tem Horn Antenna,” Electron. Lett.43(2), 73–75 (2007).
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T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Lambda/4 Resonance of an Optical Monopole Antenna Probed by Single Molecule Fluorescence,” Nano Lett.7(1), 28–33 (2007).
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2006 (6)

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, “Gap Plasmon Polariton Structure for Very Efficient Microscale-to-Nanoscale Interfacing,” Opt. Lett.31(22), 3288–3290 (2006).
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D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and Nonadiabatic Nanofocusing of Plasmons by Tapered Gap Plasmon Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041111 (2006).
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L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, “Near-Field Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Pointed Probes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.57(1), 303–331 (2006).
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N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Photonics: Tip-Enhanced Microscopy and Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S227–S233 (2006).
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C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. B. Raschke, “Scanning-Probe Raman Spectroscopy with Single-Molecule Sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B73(19), 193406 (2006).
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L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. F. Xu, “Nanolithography Using High Transmission Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures,” Nano Lett.6(3), 361–364 (2006).
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2005 (4)

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
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J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single Quantum Dot Coupled to a Scanning Optical Antenna: A Tunable Superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(1), 017402 (2005).
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Y. Saito, T. Murakami, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Fabrication of Silver Probes for Localized Plasmon Excitation in near-Field Raman Spectroscopy,” Chem. Lett.34(7), 920–921 (2005).
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2004 (5)

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, “Nanoscale Probing of Adsorbed Species by Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(9), 096101 (2004).
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J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral Analysis of Strongly Enhanced Visible Light Transmission through Single C-Shaped Nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 648–650 (2004).
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M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in Tapered Plasmonic Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(13), 137404 (2004).
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S. Sun and G. J. Leggett, “Matching the Resolution of Electron Beam Lithography by Scanning near-Field Photolithography,” Nano Lett.4(8), 1381–1384 (2004).
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D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Terahertz Fields and Applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.28(1), 1–66 (2004).
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2000 (3)

A. J. Babadjanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of Surface Polaritons in the Conical Structure,” J. Appl. Phys.87(8), 3785–3788 (2000).
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1997 (1)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
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1995 (1)

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1994 (2)

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, “Light Propagation in a Cylindrical Wave-Guide with a Complex, Metallic, Dielectric Function,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics50(5), 4094–4106 (1994).
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1992 (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-Field Optics: Microscopy, Spectroscopy, and Surface Modification Beyond the Diffraction Limit,” Science257(5067), 189–195 (1992).
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1985 (1)

1984 (1)

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1972 (1)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-Resolution Aperture Scanning Microscope,” Nature237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
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1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes,” Phys. Rev.66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
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X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly Efficient Interfacing of Guided Plasmons and Photons in Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
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Ahn, S. H.

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-Space Mapping of the Strongly Coupled Plasmons of Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
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Akalin, T.

E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, T. Akalin, and L. Desplanque, “Integrated Terahertz Tem Horn Antenna,” Electron. Lett.43(2), 73–75 (2007).
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Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-Coupling of Surface Plasmons onto Metallic Tips: A Nanoconfined Light Source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
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Aloni, S.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
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M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of Mid-Infrared Energy with Tapered Transmission Lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
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Anderson, N.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Photonics: Tip-Enhanced Microscopy and Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S227–S233 (2006).
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Andreani, L. C.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale Chemical Mapping Using Three-Dimensional Adiabatic Compression of Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 67–72 (2010).
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Arbel, D.

Arzubiaga, L.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of Mid-Infrared Energy with Tapered Transmission Lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
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E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-Resolution Aperture Scanning Microscope,” Nature237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
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Ashby, P.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral Nanoscale Imaging on Dielectric Substrates with Coaxial Optical Antenna Scan Probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
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Atkin, J. M.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Light on the Tip of a Needle: Plasmonic Nanofocusing for Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(7), 945–952 (2012).
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Babadjanyan, A. J.

A. J. Babadjanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of Surface Polaritons in the Conical Structure,” J. Appl. Phys.87(8), 3785–3788 (2000).
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Bak, W. S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-Hole Polarization Analyser for the Magnetic Vector of Light,” Nat. Commun.2, 451 (2011).
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H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-Hole Polarization Analyser for the Magnetic Vector of Light,” Nat. Commun.2, 451 (2011).
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Bao, W.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
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Bartal, G.

Beams, R.

T. W. Johnson, Z. J. Lapin, R. Beams, N. C. Lindquist, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Novotny, and S.-H. Oh, “Highly Reproducible near-Field Optical Imaging with Sub-20-Nm Resolution Based on Template-Stripped Gold Pyramids,” ACS Nano6(10), 9168–9174 (2012).
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Behr, N.

C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. B. Raschke, “Scanning-Probe Raman Spectroscopy with Single-Molecule Sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B73(19), 193406 (2006).
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Bek, A.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale Chemical Mapping Using Three-Dimensional Adiabatic Compression of Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 67–72 (2010).
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Berweger, S.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Light on the Tip of a Needle: Plasmonic Nanofocusing for Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(7), 945–952 (2012).
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C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-Field Localization in Plasmonic Superfocusing: A Nanoemitter on a Tip,” Nano Lett.10(2), 592–596 (2010).
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H. A. Bethe, “Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes,” Phys. Rev.66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
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E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-Field Optics: Microscopy, Spectroscopy, and Surface Modification Beyond the Diffraction Limit,” Science257(5067), 189–195 (1992).
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P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for Visible and Infrared Radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
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P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross Resonant Optical Antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(25), 256801 (2009).
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Bokor, J.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a Metal-Insulator-Metal Gap Plasmon Waveguide with a Three-Dimensional Linear Taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
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W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
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A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral Nanoscale Imaging on Dielectric Substrates with Coaxial Optical Antenna Scan Probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
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A. T. Zayak, Y. S. Hu, H. Choo, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and J. B. Neaton, “Chemical Raman Enhancement of Organic Adsorbates on Metal Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(8), 083003 (2011).
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Boltasseva, A.

Boreman, G. D.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
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Bouhelier, A.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Photonics: Tip-Enhanced Microscopy and Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S227–S233 (2006).
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Bouillard, J.-S.

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the Magnetic Field of Light at Optical Frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
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Cabrini, S.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
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H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a Metal-Insulator-Metal Gap Plasmon Waveguide with a Three-Dimensional Linear Taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
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A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions Via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(3), 037402 (2011).
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A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral Nanoscale Imaging on Dielectric Substrates with Coaxial Optical Antenna Scan Probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
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A. T. Zayak, Y. S. Hu, H. Choo, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and J. B. Neaton, “Chemical Raman Enhancement of Organic Adsorbates on Metal Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(8), 083003 (2011).
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Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Manipulating Nanoscale Light Fields with the Asymmetric Bowtie Nano-Colorsorter,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4505–4509 (2009).
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