Abstract

Efficient conversion of photonic to plasmonic energy is important for nano-optical applications, particularly imaging and spectroscopy. Recently a new generation of photonic/plasmonic transducers, the ‘campanile’ probes, has been developed that overcomes many shortcomings of previous near-field probes by efficiently merging broadband field enhancement with bidirectional coupling of far- to near-field electromagnetic modes. In this work we compare the properties of the campanile structure with those of current NSOM tips using finite element simulations. Field confinement, enhancement, and polarization near the apex of the probe are evaluated relative to local fields created by conical tapered tips in vacuum and in tip-substrate gap mode. We show that the campanile design has similar field enhancement and bandwidth capabilities as those of ultra-sharp metallized tips, but without the substrate and sample restrictions inherent in the tip-surface gap mode operation often required by those tips. In addition, we show for the first time that this campanile probe structure also significantly enhances the radiative rate of any dipole emitter located near the probe apex, quantifying the enhanced decay rate and demonstrating that over 90% of the light radiated by the emitter is “captured” by this probe. This is equivalent to collecting the light from a solid angle of ~3.6 pi. These advantages are crucial for performing techniques such as Raman and IR spectroscopy, white-light nano-ellipsometry and ultrafast pump-probe studies at the nanoscale.

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2012 (7)

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a Metal-Insulator-Metal Gap Plasmon Waveguide with a Three-Dimensional Linear Taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit Analysis in Metal-Optics,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.10(1), 166–176 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Developments in and Practical Guidelines for Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Nanoscale4(6), 1856–1870 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for Visible and Infrared Radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Light on the Tip of a Needle: Plasmonic Nanofocusing for Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(7), 945–952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Johnson, Z. J. Lapin, R. Beams, N. C. Lindquist, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Novotny, and S.-H. Oh, “Highly Reproducible near-Field Optical Imaging with Sub-20-Nm Resolution Based on Template-Stripped Gold Pyramids,” ACS Nano6(10), 9168–9174 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, “Oxides and Nitrides as Alternative Plasmonic Materials in the Optical Range [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1090–1099 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of Mid-Infrared Energy with Tapered Transmission Lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-Hole Polarization Analyser for the Magnetic Vector of Light,” Nat. Commun.2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral Nanoscale Imaging on Dielectric Substrates with Coaxial Optical Antenna Scan Probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Neumann, Y. J. Pang, A. Houyou, M. L. Juan, R. Gordon, and N. F. van Hulst, “Extraordinary Optical Transmission Brightens near-Field Fiber Probe,” Nano Lett.11(2), 355–360 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic Nanofocusing Scattering-Type Optical Nanoscopy of Individual Gold Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Zayak, Y. S. Hu, H. Choo, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and J. B. Neaton, “Chemical Raman Enhancement of Organic Adsorbates on Metal Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(8), 083003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions Via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(3), 037402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale Chemical Imaging Using Top-Illumination Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4514–4520 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Domke and B. Pettinger, “Studying Surface Chemistry Beyond the Diffraction Limit: 10 Years of Ters,” ChemPhysChem11(7), 1365–1373 (2010).
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F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale Chemical Mapping Using Three-Dimensional Adiabatic Compression of Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 67–72 (2010).
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J.-S. Bouillard, S. Vilain, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Scanning near-Field Optical Microscopy: Applications in Plasmonics,” Opt. Express18(16), 16513–16519 (2010).
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C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-Field Localization in Plasmonic Superfocusing: A Nanoemitter on a Tip,” Nano Lett.10(2), 592–596 (2010).
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2009 (17)

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(20), 203904 (2009).
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M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the Magnetic Field of Light at Optical Frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
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H. Choi, D. F. P. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing Surface Plasmons for Nano-Scale Optical Focusing,” Opt. Express17(9), 7519–7524 (2009).
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P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross Resonant Optical Antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(25), 256801 (2009).
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Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Manipulating Nanoscale Light Fields with the Asymmetric Bowtie Nano-Colorsorter,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4505–4509 (2009).
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S. Vedantam, H. Lee, J. Tang, J. Conway, M. Staffaroni, and E. Yablonovitch, “A Plasmonic Dimple Lens for Nanoscale Focusing of Light,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3447–3452 (2009).
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X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly Efficient Interfacing of Guided Plasmons and Photons in Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
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W. H. Zhang, X. D. Cui, and O. J. F. Martin, “Local Field Enhancement of an Infinite Conical Metal Tip Illuminated by a Focused Beam,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40(10), 1338–1342 (2009).
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S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-Field Nano-Imaging and Superlensing,” Nat. Photonics3(7), 388–394 (2009).
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D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-Space Mapping of the Strongly Coupled Plasmons of Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
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A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-Power, and Light-Actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
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T. Deckert-Gaudig and V. Deckert, “Ultraflat Transparent Gold Nanoplates - Ideal Substrates for Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering Experiments,” Small5(4), 432–436 (2009).
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K. F. Domke and B. Pettinger, “In Situ Discrimination between Axially Complexed and Ligand-Free Co Porphyrin on Au(111) with Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem10(11), 1794–1798 (2009).
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H. Eghlidi, K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Resolution and Enhancement in Nanoantenna-Based Fluorescence Microscopy,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4007–4011 (2009).
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P. Vasa, C. Ropers, R. Pomraenke, and C. Lienau, “Ultra-Fast Nano-Optics,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 483–507 (2009).
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2008 (3)

A. Hartschuh, “Tip-Enhanced near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(43), 8178–8191 (2008).
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M. Sackrow, C. Stanciu, M. A. Lieb, and A. J. Meixner, “Imaging Nanometre-Sized Hot Spots on Smooth Au Films with High-Resolution Tip-Enhanced Luminescence and Raman near-Field Optical Microscopy,” ChemPhysChem9(2), 316–320 (2008).
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Y. Wang, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nearfield Scanning Probe with High Transmission,” Nano Lett.8(9), 3041–3045 (2008).
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2007 (6)

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-Coupling of Surface Plasmons onto Metallic Tips: A Nanoconfined Light Source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
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D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, “Local Electric Field Enhancement During Nanofocusing of Plasmons by a Tapered Gap,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035431 (2007).
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E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, T. Akalin, and L. Desplanque, “Integrated Terahertz Tem Horn Antenna,” Electron. Lett.43(2), 73–75 (2007).
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T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Lambda/4 Resonance of an Optical Monopole Antenna Probed by Single Molecule Fluorescence,” Nano Lett.7(1), 28–33 (2007).
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R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-Substrate Interaction in Optical near-Field Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B75(19), 195410 (2007).
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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector Field Microscopic Imaging of Light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
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2006 (6)

L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, “Near-Field Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Pointed Probes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.57(1), 303–331 (2006).
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N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Photonics: Tip-Enhanced Microscopy and Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S227–S233 (2006).
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C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. B. Raschke, “Scanning-Probe Raman Spectroscopy with Single-Molecule Sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B73(19), 193406 (2006).
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D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and Nonadiabatic Nanofocusing of Plasmons by Tapered Gap Plasmon Waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041111 (2006).
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P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, “Gap Plasmon Polariton Structure for Very Efficient Microscale-to-Nanoscale Interfacing,” Opt. Lett.31(22), 3288–3290 (2006).
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L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. F. Xu, “Nanolithography Using High Transmission Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures,” Nano Lett.6(3), 361–364 (2006).
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2005 (4)

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
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J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single Quantum Dot Coupled to a Scanning Optical Antenna: A Tunable Superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(1), 017402 (2005).
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Y. Saito, T. Murakami, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Fabrication of Silver Probes for Localized Plasmon Excitation in near-Field Raman Spectroscopy,” Chem. Lett.34(7), 920–921 (2005).
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2004 (5)

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, “Nanoscale Probing of Adsorbed Species by Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(9), 096101 (2004).
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J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral Analysis of Strongly Enhanced Visible Light Transmission through Single C-Shaped Nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 648–650 (2004).
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S. Sun and G. J. Leggett, “Matching the Resolution of Electron Beam Lithography by Scanning near-Field Photolithography,” Nano Lett.4(8), 1381–1384 (2004).
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M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in Tapered Plasmonic Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(13), 137404 (2004).
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D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Terahertz Fields and Applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.28(1), 1–66 (2004).
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2000 (3)

A. J. Babadjanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of Surface Polaritons in the Conical Structure,” J. Appl. Phys.87(8), 3785–3788 (2000).
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Y. D. Suh and R. Zenobi, “Improved Probes for Scanning near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Adv. Mater.12(15), 1139–1142 (2000).
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R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex Optical Constants on a Subwavelength Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
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1997 (1)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
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1995 (1)

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning Interferometric Apertureless Microscopy: Optical Imaging at 10 Angstrom Resolution,” Science269(5227), 1083–1085 (1995).
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1994 (2)

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope with a Metallic Probe Tip,” Opt. Lett.19(3), 159–161 (1994).
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1992 (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-Field Optics: Microscopy, Spectroscopy, and Surface Modification Beyond the Diffraction Limit,” Science257(5067), 189–195 (1992).
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1985 (1)

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical Stethoscopy - Image Recording with Resolution Lambda/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(7), 651–653 (1984).
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1972 (1)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-Resolution Aperture Scanning Microscope,” Nature237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
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1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes,” Phys. Rev.66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
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X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly Efficient Interfacing of Guided Plasmons and Photons in Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
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Ahn, S. H.

D. S. Kim, J. Heo, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-Space Mapping of the Strongly Coupled Plasmons of Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
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Akalin, T.

E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, T. Akalin, and L. Desplanque, “Integrated Terahertz Tem Horn Antenna,” Electron. Lett.43(2), 73–75 (2007).
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Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-Coupling of Surface Plasmons onto Metallic Tips: A Nanoconfined Light Source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
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Aloni, S.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
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M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of Mid-Infrared Energy with Tapered Transmission Lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
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Anderson, N.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Photonics: Tip-Enhanced Microscopy and Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S227–S233 (2006).
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Andreani, L. C.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale Chemical Mapping Using Three-Dimensional Adiabatic Compression of Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 67–72 (2010).
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Arbel, D.

Arzubiaga, L.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of Mid-Infrared Energy with Tapered Transmission Lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
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E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-Resolution Aperture Scanning Microscope,” Nature237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
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Ashby, P.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral Nanoscale Imaging on Dielectric Substrates with Coaxial Optical Antenna Scan Probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
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Atkin, J. M.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Light on the Tip of a Needle: Plasmonic Nanofocusing for Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(7), 945–952 (2012).
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Babadjanyan, A. J.

A. J. Babadjanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of Surface Polaritons in the Conical Structure,” J. Appl. Phys.87(8), 3785–3788 (2000).
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Bak, W. S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-Hole Polarization Analyser for the Magnetic Vector of Light,” Nat. Commun.2, 451 (2011).
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H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-Hole Polarization Analyser for the Magnetic Vector of Light,” Nat. Commun.2, 451 (2011).
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Bao, W.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
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Bartal, G.

Beams, R.

T. W. Johnson, Z. J. Lapin, R. Beams, N. C. Lindquist, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Novotny, and S.-H. Oh, “Highly Reproducible near-Field Optical Imaging with Sub-20-Nm Resolution Based on Template-Stripped Gold Pyramids,” ACS Nano6(10), 9168–9174 (2012).
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Behr, N.

C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. B. Raschke, “Scanning-Probe Raman Spectroscopy with Single-Molecule Sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B73(19), 193406 (2006).
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Bek, A.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale Chemical Mapping Using Three-Dimensional Adiabatic Compression of Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 67–72 (2010).
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Berweger, S.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Light on the Tip of a Needle: Plasmonic Nanofocusing for Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(7), 945–952 (2012).
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C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-Field Localization in Plasmonic Superfocusing: A Nanoemitter on a Tip,” Nano Lett.10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. A. Bethe, “Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes,” Phys. Rev.66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
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Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-Field Optics: Microscopy, Spectroscopy, and Surface Modification Beyond the Diffraction Limit,” Science257(5067), 189–195 (1992).
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P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for Visible and Infrared Radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
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P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Cross Resonant Optical Antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(25), 256801 (2009).
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Bokor, J.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a Metal-Insulator-Metal Gap Plasmon Waveguide with a Three-Dimensional Linear Taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
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W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
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A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral Nanoscale Imaging on Dielectric Substrates with Coaxial Optical Antenna Scan Probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
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A. T. Zayak, Y. S. Hu, H. Choo, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and J. B. Neaton, “Chemical Raman Enhancement of Organic Adsorbates on Metal Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(8), 083003 (2011).
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Boltasseva, A.

Boreman, G. D.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
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Bouhelier, A.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Photonics: Tip-Enhanced Microscopy and Spectroscopy on the Nanoscale,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S227–S233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouillard, J.-S.

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the Magnetic Field of Light at Optical Frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
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Cabrini, S.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a Metal-Insulator-Metal Gap Plasmon Waveguide with a Three-Dimensional Linear Taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
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W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Mapping Local Charge Recombination Heterogeneity by Multidimensional Nanospectroscopic Imaging,” Science338(6112), 1317–1321 (2012).
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A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions Via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(3), 037402 (2011).
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A. T. Zayak, Y. S. Hu, H. Choo, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and J. B. Neaton, “Chemical Raman Enhancement of Organic Adsorbates on Metal Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(8), 083003 (2011).
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A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. J. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral Nanoscale Imaging on Dielectric Substrates with Coaxial Optical Antenna Scan Probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
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Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Manipulating Nanoscale Light Fields with the Asymmetric Bowtie Nano-Colorsorter,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4505–4509 (2009).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 3D schematic of a campanile structure at the end of a gold-coated conical tapered NSOM fiber. A diagram of a metal-insulating-metal (MIM) structure is shown in the inset.(b) FEM simulations of a campanile structure with a final gap size Do = 10 nm and a round corner radius of 4 nm; λ = 713 nm was used here. The yz-section of the spatial profile of the steady-state electric field amplitude near the end of the campanile, normalized to he amplitude of the incident field and a geometric factor [9]. The white arrows indicate the polarization of the electric field. The simulation shows an 8% reduction in enhancement relative to the simulation in reference [9] with no rounding at the corners at the gap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sections of the electric field distribution surrounding a CAT tip in vacuum are shown in (a-b). For the simulations, plasmonic current sources are placed directly in the tip shaft. The field distribution cross-sections for a CAT tip in tip-substrate gap mode are shown in (c-d). In this case, the fields in the gap mode are much larger and more localized (λ = 667 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric field |E| enhancement vs. wavelength for a CAT tip in tip-substrate gap mode 2 nm above a gold substrate (purple curve), a CAT tip with 2 nm radius in vacuum (dark yellow curve), a campanile tip with a 2 nm gap at the tapered apex (blue curve), a CAT tip in vacuum (black curve), and a campanile tip with a 10 nm gap (red curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FEM simulations of a campanile structure located on a tapered optical fiber, with an emitting electric dipole oriented along the y direction, centered on the gap and located in the z-axis 2 nm away from the tip apex. Values of Wi = Di = 1500 nm, Au film thickness = 300 nm, Do = 10 nm were used here. (a) The yz-section of the steady-state electric field amplitude near the end of the probe, with the dipole emission wavelength λ = 713 nm. (b) Enhancement of the dipole’s total emitted power (black curve) and the emitted power reaching the optical fiber core (red curve) vs. wavelength, relative to the dipole in vacuum. (c) The percentage of emitted power directed into the campanile probe (black curve) and the percentage of emitted power that reaches the optical fiber core (red curve) vs. wavelength.

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