Abstract

Silicon photonic biosensors are highly attractive for multiplexed Lab-on-Chip systems. Here, we characterize the sensing performance of 3 µm TE-mode and 10 µm dual TE/TM-mode silicon photonic micro-disk resonators and demonstrate their ability to detect the specific capture of biomolecules. Our experimental results show sensitivities of 26 nm/RIU and 142 nm/RIU, and quality factors of 3.3x104 and 1.6x104 for the TE and TM modes, respectively. Additionally, we show that the large disks contain both TE and TM modes with differing sensing characteristics. Finally, by serializing multiple disks on a single waveguide bus in a CMOS compatible process, we demonstrate a biosensor capable of multiplexed interrogation of biological samples.

© 2013 OSA

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2013 (1)

J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

S. G. Attila Mekis, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).

2010 (6)

D. X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J. M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, Z. Diao, N. Le Thomas, and R. Houdré, “Refractive index sensing with an air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2523–2525 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, “Photonics-on-a-chip: recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(2), 227–236 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82(1), 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. M. Jokerst, L. Luan, S. Palit, M. Royal, S. Dhar, M. Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Prabhathan, V. M. Murukeshan, Z. Jing, and P. V. Ramana, “Compact SOI nanowire refractive index sensor using phase shifted Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15330–15341 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Feng, Z. Zhou, C. J. Summers, D. S. Citrin, and J. Yu, “Simple technique to fabricate microscale and nanoscale silicon waveguide devices,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(3), 308–311 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. P. Erickson, “Size and shape of protein molecules at the nanometer level determined by sedimentation, gel filtration, and electron microscopy,” Biol. Proced. Online 11(1), 32–51 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Ultra-high Q planar silicon microdisk resonators for chip-scale silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4694–4704 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gnan, D. S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, “Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2034–2037 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (3)

U. B. Nielsen and B. H. Geierstanger, “Multiplexed sandwich assays in microarray format,” J. Immunol. Methods 290(1-2), 107–120 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J. 87(1), 553–561 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Gröning, M. Bielmann, C. Galli, and L. Schlapbach, “Adsorption and bioactivity of protein A on silicon surfaces studied by AFM and XPS,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 233(2), 180–189 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

M. Graille, E. A. Stura, A. L. Corper, B. J. Sutton, M. J. Taussig, J.-B. Charbonnier, and G. J. Silverman, “Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5399–5404 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. DeLano, M. H. Ultsch, A. M. de Vos, and J. A. Wells, “Convergent solutions to binding at a protein-protein interface,” Science 287(5456), 1279–1283 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Sokoloff, K. C. Norton, C. L. Gasior, K. M. Marker, and L. S. Grauer, “A dual-monoclonal sandwich assay for prostate-specific membrane antigen: Levels in tissues, seminal fluid and urine,” Prostate 43(2), 150–157 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, “A porous silicon optical biosensor: detection of reversible binding of IgG to a protein A-modified surface,” JACS 121(34), 7925–7930 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Elwing, “Protein absorption and ellipsometry in biomaterial research,” Biomaterials 19(4-5), 397–406 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. L. Weisenhorn, F. J. Schmitt, W. Knoll, and P. K. Hansma, “Streptavidin binding observed with an atomic force microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 42-44(Pt B), 1125–1132 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. A. Darst, M. Ahlers, P. H. Meller, E. W. Kubalek, R. Blankenburg, H. O. Ribi, H. Ringsdorf, and R. D. Kornberg, “Two-dimensional crystals of streptavidin on biotinylated lipid layers and their interactions with biotinylated macromolecules,” Biophys. J. 59(2), 387–396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

G. Moţa, I. Moraru, J. Sjöquist, and V. Gheţie, “Protein A as a molecular probe for the detection of antigen induced conformational change in Fc region of rabbit antibody,” Mol. Immunol. 18(5), 373–378 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adibi, A.

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahlers, M.

S. A. Darst, M. Ahlers, P. H. Meller, E. W. Kubalek, R. Blankenburg, H. O. Ribi, H. Ringsdorf, and R. D. Kornberg, “Two-dimensional crystals of streptavidin on biotinylated lipid layers and their interactions with biotinylated macromolecules,” Biophys. J. 59(2), 387–396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

Attila Mekis, S. G.

S. G. Attila Mekis, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).

Baehr-Jones, T.

J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R. C.

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, “Photonics-on-a-chip: recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(2), 227–236 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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Houdré, R.

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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
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Jágerská, J.

Janz, S.

Jiang, S.

J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
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Jokerst, N. M.

N. M. Jokerst, L. Luan, S. Palit, M. Royal, S. Dhar, M. Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
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J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
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A. L. Weisenhorn, F. J. Schmitt, W. Knoll, and P. K. Hansma, “Streptavidin binding observed with an atomic force microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 42-44(Pt B), 1125–1132 (1992).
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S. A. Darst, M. Ahlers, P. H. Meller, E. W. Kubalek, R. Blankenburg, H. O. Ribi, H. Ringsdorf, and R. D. Kornberg, “Two-dimensional crystals of streptavidin on biotinylated lipid layers and their interactions with biotinylated macromolecules,” Biophys. J. 59(2), 387–396 (1991).
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Le Thomas, N.

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M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Gröning, M. Bielmann, C. Galli, and L. Schlapbach, “Adsorption and bioactivity of protein A on silicon surfaces studied by AFM and XPS,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 233(2), 180–189 (2001).
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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
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N. M. Jokerst, L. Luan, S. Palit, M. Royal, S. Dhar, M. Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
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Luchansky, M. S.

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82(1), 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
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P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
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Ma, R.

Macintyre, D. S.

M. Gnan, D. S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, “Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2034–2037 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maquieira, A.

Marker, K. M.

R. L. Sokoloff, K. C. Norton, C. L. Gasior, K. M. Marker, and L. S. Grauer, “A dual-monoclonal sandwich assay for prostate-specific membrane antigen: Levels in tissues, seminal fluid and urine,” Prostate 43(2), 150–157 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, T. A.

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masini, G.

S. G. Attila Mekis, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).

Meller, P. H.

S. A. Darst, M. Ahlers, P. H. Meller, E. W. Kubalek, R. Blankenburg, H. O. Ribi, H. Ringsdorf, and R. D. Kornberg, “Two-dimensional crystals of streptavidin on biotinylated lipid layers and their interactions with biotinylated macromolecules,” Biophys. J. 59(2), 387–396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messaoudène, S.

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moraru, I.

G. Moţa, I. Moraru, J. Sjöquist, and V. Gheţie, “Protein A as a molecular probe for the detection of antigen induced conformational change in Fc region of rabbit antibody,” Mol. Immunol. 18(5), 373–378 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morson, R.

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mota, G.

G. Moţa, I. Moraru, J. Sjöquist, and V. Gheţie, “Protein A as a molecular probe for the detection of antigen induced conformational change in Fc region of rabbit antibody,” Mol. Immunol. 18(5), 373–378 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muri, M. D.

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Murukeshan, V. M.

Mutinati, G.

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Narasimha, A.

S. G. Attila Mekis, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).

Nielsen, U. B.

U. B. Nielsen and B. H. Geierstanger, “Multiplexed sandwich assays in microarray format,” J. Immunol. Methods 290(1-2), 107–120 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norton, K. C.

R. L. Sokoloff, K. C. Norton, C. L. Gasior, K. M. Marker, and L. S. Grauer, “A dual-monoclonal sandwich assay for prostate-specific membrane antigen: Levels in tissues, seminal fluid and urine,” Prostate 43(2), 150–157 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nottola, A.

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Palit, S.

N. M. Jokerst, L. Luan, S. Palit, M. Royal, S. Dhar, M. Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

S. G. Attila Mekis, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).

Post, E.

Prabhathan, P.

Ramana, P. V.

Ratner, D. M.

J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ribi, H. O.

S. A. Darst, M. Ahlers, P. H. Meller, E. W. Kubalek, R. Blankenburg, H. O. Ribi, H. Ringsdorf, and R. D. Kornberg, “Two-dimensional crystals of streptavidin on biotinylated lipid layers and their interactions with biotinylated macromolecules,” Biophys. J. 59(2), 387–396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ringsdorf, H.

S. A. Darst, M. Ahlers, P. H. Meller, E. W. Kubalek, R. Blankenburg, H. O. Ribi, H. Ringsdorf, and R. D. Kornberg, “Two-dimensional crystals of streptavidin on biotinylated lipid layers and their interactions with biotinylated macromolecules,” Biophys. J. 59(2), 387–396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Royal, M.

N. M. Jokerst, L. Luan, S. Palit, M. Royal, S. Dhar, M. Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sahni, S.

S. G. Attila Mekis, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).

Sailor, M. J.

K. P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, “A porous silicon optical biosensor: detection of reversible binding of IgG to a protein A-modified surface,” JACS 121(34), 7925–7930 (1999).
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Sardo, S.

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
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K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
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Schlapbach, L.

M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Gröning, M. Bielmann, C. Galli, and L. Schlapbach, “Adsorption and bioactivity of protein A on silicon surfaces studied by AFM and XPS,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 233(2), 180–189 (2001).
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Schmid, J. H.

Schmitt, F. J.

A. L. Weisenhorn, F. J. Schmitt, W. Knoll, and P. K. Hansma, “Streptavidin binding observed with an atomic force microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 42-44(Pt B), 1125–1132 (1992).
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Shi, W.

Silverman, G. J.

M. Graille, E. A. Stura, A. L. Corper, B. J. Sutton, M. J. Taussig, J.-B. Charbonnier, and G. J. Silverman, “Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5399–5404 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sjöquist, J.

G. Moţa, I. Moraru, J. Sjöquist, and V. Gheţie, “Protein A as a molecular probe for the detection of antigen induced conformational change in Fc region of rabbit antibody,” Mol. Immunol. 18(5), 373–378 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohlström, H.

Sokoloff, R. L.

R. L. Sokoloff, K. C. Norton, C. L. Gasior, K. M. Marker, and L. S. Grauer, “A dual-monoclonal sandwich assay for prostate-specific membrane antigen: Levels in tissues, seminal fluid and urine,” Prostate 43(2), 150–157 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soltani, M.

Sorel, M.

M. Gnan, D. S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, “Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2034–2037 (2007).
[Crossref]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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Stura, E. A.

M. Graille, E. A. Stura, A. L. Corper, B. J. Sutton, M. J. Taussig, J.-B. Charbonnier, and G. J. Silverman, “Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5399–5404 (2000).
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Summers, C. J.

Y. Chen, J. Feng, Z. Zhou, C. J. Summers, D. S. Citrin, and J. Yu, “Simple technique to fabricate microscale and nanoscale silicon waveguide devices,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(3), 308–311 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sutton, B. J.

M. Graille, E. A. Stura, A. L. Corper, B. J. Sutton, M. J. Taussig, J.-B. Charbonnier, and G. J. Silverman, “Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5399–5404 (2000).
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Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taussig, M. J.

M. Graille, E. A. Stura, A. L. Corper, B. J. Sutton, M. J. Taussig, J.-B. Charbonnier, and G. J. Silverman, “Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5399–5404 (2000).
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Teraoka, I.

Thoms, S.

M. Gnan, D. S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, “Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2034–2037 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

N. M. Jokerst, L. Luan, S. Palit, M. Royal, S. Dhar, M. Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ubaldi, M. C.

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Sardo, F. Giacometti, S. Doneda, U. Colombo, M. D. Muri, A. Donghi, R. Morson, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Gentili, and M. C. Ubaldi, “Line edge roughness (LER) reduction strategy for SOI waveguides fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5-6), 1210–1213 (2008).
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Ultsch, M. H.

W. L. DeLano, M. H. Ultsch, A. M. de Vos, and J. A. Wells, “Convergent solutions to binding at a protein-protein interface,” Science 287(5456), 1279–1283 (2000).
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Vachon, M.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
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Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
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Vörös, J.

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J. 87(1), 553–561 (2004).
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Wang, Y.

Washburn, A. L.

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82(1), 69–72 (2010).
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A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, “Photonics-on-a-chip: recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(2), 227–236 (2010).
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A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisenhorn, A. L.

A. L. Weisenhorn, F. J. Schmitt, W. Knoll, and P. K. Hansma, “Streptavidin binding observed with an atomic force microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 42-44(Pt B), 1125–1132 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, J. A.

W. L. DeLano, M. H. Ultsch, A. M. de Vos, and J. A. Wells, “Convergent solutions to binding at a protein-protein interface,” Science 287(5456), 1279–1283 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
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Xu, D. X.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

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Y. Chen, J. Feng, Z. Zhou, C. J. Summers, D. S. Citrin, and J. Yu, “Simple technique to fabricate microscale and nanoscale silicon waveguide devices,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(3), 308–311 (2009).
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Yun, H.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, W.

Zhou, Z.

Y. Chen, J. Feng, Z. Zhou, C. J. Summers, D. S. Citrin, and J. Yu, “Simple technique to fabricate microscale and nanoscale silicon waveguide devices,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(3), 308–311 (2009).
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Anal. Chem. (2)

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
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A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82(1), 69–72 (2010).
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Analyst (Lond.) (1)

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, “Photonics-on-a-chip: recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(2), 227–236 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
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H. P. Erickson, “Size and shape of protein molecules at the nanometer level determined by sedimentation, gel filtration, and electron microscopy,” Biol. Proced. Online 11(1), 32–51 (2009).
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Biomaterials (1)

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S. A. Darst, M. Ahlers, P. H. Meller, E. W. Kubalek, R. Blankenburg, H. O. Ribi, H. Ringsdorf, and R. D. Kornberg, “Two-dimensional crystals of streptavidin on biotinylated lipid layers and their interactions with biotinylated macromolecules,” Biophys. J. 59(2), 387–396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J. 87(1), 553–561 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1283–1291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front. Optoelectron. China (1)

Y. Chen, J. Feng, Z. Zhou, C. J. Summers, D. S. Citrin, and J. Yu, “Simple technique to fabricate microscale and nanoscale silicon waveguide devices,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(3), 308–311 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. G. Attila Mekis, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. (1)

N. M. Jokerst, L. Luan, S. Palit, M. Royal, S. Dhar, M. Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Gröning, M. Bielmann, C. Galli, and L. Schlapbach, “Adsorption and bioactivity of protein A on silicon surfaces studied by AFM and XPS,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 233(2), 180–189 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Immunol. Methods (1)

U. B. Nielsen and B. H. Geierstanger, “Multiplexed sandwich assays in microarray format,” J. Immunol. Methods 290(1-2), 107–120 (2004).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Gnan, D. S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, “Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2034–2037 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated mode profiles (E-intensity) for a 10 µm disk. (a)-(c) depict the first to third TE modes, while (d)-(f) depict the first to third TM modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of our optical testing setup. (b) SEM image of a 3 µm (TE only) micro-disk resonator sensor. (c) Custom silicon photonics biosensing measurement setup. (d) PDMS flow cell with four port optical fiber connected to a 1550 nm tunable laser source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raw spectra from a TE mode in the 3 µm disk sensor (a) and a TM mode in the 10 µm sensor under varying salt concentrations (b). Peak wavelength shift vs. refractive index change and fit to refractive index sensitivity for the fundamental (black, ‘X’) and second (green, dot) TE modes in the 3 µm disk resonator (c) and a TM mode (blue, dot) and TE mode (black, ‘X’) in the 10 µm disk resonator (d). We find refractive index sensitivities of 26 nm/RIU for the fundamental TE mode and 29 nm/RIU for the second TE mode in the 3 µm disk, and 142 nm/RIU for a TM and 21 nm/RIU for a TE mode in the 10 µm disk.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM image of two resonators multiplexed on the same I/O pair. (b) Optical spectrum under varying NaCl solutions from two 3 µm disk resonators multiplexed on the same I/O pair, with zoom inset showing the sensing peak shift along with the stationary peak from the resonator under PDMS for the fundamental mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Biosensing results for the 3 µm (a) and 10 µm (b) disk sensors. (b) Resonance peak shifts (in nm) of the TM (blue) and TE (black, dashed) modes in the 10 µm disk. (a) Resonance peak shift (in nm) of the fundamental TE-like mode in the 3 µm disk. (c) Reagent sequencing corresponding to regions [A-E] in (a) and (b). Region A = protein A (1 mg/mL), B = anti-streptavidin (SA) (125 ug/mL), C = Bovine Serum Albumen (BSA) (2 mg/mL), D = streptavidin (SA) (108 µg/mL), E = Biotin-BSA (2.5 mg/mL). Introduction of reagent in each region was followed by a PBS wash, indicated by the short dashed black line within each region.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of simulated and experimental disk characteristics

Equations (2)

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λ res = 2πR n eff m ,
ILOD= λ res QS ,

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