Abstract

We demonstrate a flat polymeric lenticular microlens array using a mixture of rod-like diacrylate monomer and positive dielectric anisotropy nematic liquid crystal (LC). To create gradient refractive index profile in one microlens, we generate fringing fields from a planar top electrode and two striped bottom electrodes. After UV stabilization, the film is optically anisotropic and can stand alone. We then laminate this film on a 90° twisted-nematic LC cell, which works as a dynamic polarization rotator. The static polymeric lenticular lens exhibits focusing effect only to the extraordinary ray, but no optical effect to the ordinary ray. Such an integrated lens system offers several advantages, such as low voltage, fast response time, and temperature insensitivity, and can be used for switchable 2D/3D displays.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle 3D/2D convertible display system using two display devices and a lens array,” Opt. Express13(21), 8424–8432 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Flack, J. Harrold, and J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next generation autostereocopic display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900M (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).
  5. A. Takagi, T. Saishu, M. Kashiwagi, K. Taira, and Y. Hirayama, “Autostereoscopic partial 2-D/3-D switchable display using liquid-crystal gradient index lens,” SID Symp. Dig. 41, 436–439 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(4), 215–219 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, “Variable focal length microlenses,” Opt. Commun.177(1-6), 157–170 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, and Q. Wang, “A focus-switchable lens made of polymer–liquid crystal composite,” J. Cryst. Growth288(1), 192–194 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 642–646 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.-H. Na, S.-C. Park, S.-U. Kim, Y. Choi, and S.-D. Lee, “Physical mechanism for flat-to-lenticular lens conversion in homogeneous liquid crystal cell with periodically undulated electrode,” Opt. Express20(2), 864–869 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Lueder, 3D Displays (Wiley, 2012).
  17. Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, Y. Kim, J.-U. Heo, Y.-K. Moon, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Polarizer-free liquid crystal display with electrically switchable microlens array,” Opt. Express21(1), 129–134 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 127–128 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S. T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 296–299 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. S. Holliman, “3D display systems,” in Handbook of optoelectronics, J.P. Dakin and R. G. W. Brown (Taylor & Francis, 2006).
  22. A. Naumov, G. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express4(9), 344–352 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S. T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next generation autostereocopic display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, and Q. Wang, “A focus-switchable lens made of polymer–liquid crystal composite,” J. Cryst. Growth288(1), 192–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle 3D/2D convertible display system using two display devices and a lens array,” Opt. Express13(21), 8424–8432 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, “Variable focal length microlenses,” Opt. Commun.177(1-6), 157–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1971 (1)

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-H.

Chen, C. W.

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-W.

Choi, H.

Choi, Y.

Commander, L. G.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, “Variable focal length microlenses,” Opt. Commun.177(1-6), 157–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Day, S. E.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, “Variable focal length microlenses,” Opt. Commun.177(1-6), 157–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, D. K. G.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).

de Zwart, S. T.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).

T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, T.

T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ezra, D.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Favalora, G. E.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Flack, J.

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next generation autostereocopic display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

Harrold, J.

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next generation autostereocopic display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, W.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.-U.

Hiddink, M. G. H.

T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, Y.

A. Takagi, T. Saishu, M. Kashiwagi, K. Taira, and Y. Hirayama, “Autostereoscopic partial 2-D/3-D switchable display using liquid-crystal gradient index lens,” SID Symp. Dig. 41, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holliman, N. S.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W.-L.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-C.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. P.

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IJzerman, W. L.

T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishinabe, T.

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, A. M. S.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, M.

A. Takagi, T. Saishu, M. Kashiwagi, K. Taira, and Y. Hirayama, “Autostereoscopic partial 2-D/3-D switchable display using liquid-crystal gradient index lens,” SID Symp. Dig. 41, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, J.-H.

Kim, S.-U.

Kim, Y.

Krijn, M. P. C. M.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).

Lee, B.

Lee, K.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

Lee, Y.-J.

Liang, X.

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L. Y.

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.-C. D.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. J.

Lin, Y.-H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, and Q. Wang, “A focus-switchable lens made of polymer–liquid crystal composite,” J. Cryst. Growth288(1), 192–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loktev, M. Y.

Love, G.

Lu, C.-F.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. G.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G. J.

Moon, Y.-K.

Moseley, R. R.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Na, J.-H.

Naumov, A.

Park, J.-H.

Park, S.-C.

Pockett, L.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S. T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saishu, T.

A. Takagi, T. Saishu, M. Kashiwagi, K. Taira, and Y. Hirayama, “Autostereoscopic partial 2-D/3-D switchable display using liquid-crystal gradient index lens,” SID Symp. Dig. 41, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Selviah, D. R.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, “Variable focal length microlenses,” Opt. Commun.177(1-6), 157–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H. P. D.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sluijter, M.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).

Song, Y.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. F.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, and Q. Wang, “A focus-switchable lens made of polymer–liquid crystal composite,” J. Cryst. Growth288(1), 192–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

Taira, K.

A. Takagi, T. Saishu, M. Kashiwagi, K. Taira, and Y. Hirayama, “Autostereoscopic partial 2-D/3-D switchable display using liquid-crystal gradient index lens,” SID Symp. Dig. 41, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, A.

A. Takagi, T. Saishu, M. Kashiwagi, K. Taira, and Y. Hirayama, “Autostereoscopic partial 2-D/3-D switchable display using liquid-crystal gradient index lens,” SID Symp. Dig. 41, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-H.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R.-Y.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirov, F.

Wang, H.

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, and Q. Wang, “A focus-switchable lens made of polymer–liquid crystal composite,” J. Cryst. Growth288(1), 192–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O. H.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).

T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodgate, G. J.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woodgate, J.

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next generation autostereocopic display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-L.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-S.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S.-T.

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S. T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.-C.

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, and Q. Wang, “A focus-switchable lens made of polymer–liquid crystal composite,” J. Cryst. Growth288(1), 192–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (3)

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. SID (1)

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, “Variable focal length microlenses,” Opt. Commun.177(1-6), 157–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (4)

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next generation autostereocopic display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Takagi, T. Saishu, M. Kashiwagi, K. Taira, and Y. Hirayama, “Autostereoscopic partial 2-D/3-D switchable display using liquid-crystal gradient index lens,” SID Symp. Dig. 41, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Lueder, 3D Displays (Wiley, 2012).

N. S. Holliman, “3D display systems,” in Handbook of optoelectronics, J.P. Dakin and R. G. W. Brown (Taylor & Francis, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Operation principle of a switchable 2D/3D display with a TN broadband polarization rotator (middle) and a polymeric microlens array (top): (a) voltage-off and (b) voltage-on.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Procedures for fabricating a polymeric lens: (a) homogeneous alignment of a diacrylate LC monomer at voltage-off state, (b) symmetric but inhomogeneous alignment at a voltage-on state, (c) UV curing to stabilize the molecular structure, and (d) peeling off the flat polymeric lens from the substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Alignment of the monomer/LC cell at different conditions: (a) at 75°C with rubbing direction along the optic axis of a polarizer, (b) at 75 °C with rubbing direction oriented at 45° to the axis of one polarizer, (c) at 65 °C for one minute and (d) at 65°C for two minutes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The POM images of UV cured RM257/BL038 cell: the rubbing direction is (a) 45° and (b) 0° to the optical axis of the polarizer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Photo of the solidified film during peeling, (b) image of a film observed under POM with its axis oriented at 45°and (c) 0° to the axis of the polarizer, and (d) in focused state with a red color filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The phase profiles of one polymeric microlens before and after peeling.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM images of the polymeric film: (a) surface morphology and (b) cross-sectional morphology.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Evaluation of the focus switching of the TNLC/polymeric lens: (a) Experimental setup, (b) imaging and intensity profiles of the focusing state, (c) imaging and intensity profiles of the non-focusing state.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z=f( e i +1 )
f= π w 2 ( 4Δϕλ )

Metrics