Abstract

We demonstrate a novel method of mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) generation with the use of a 2 µm gain-switched self-mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser. SC radiation ranging from ~1.9 to 3.8 µm wavelength, generated in a single-mode ZBLAN fiber with a zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) shifted to ~1.9 µm, is reported. An average output power of 0.74 W with 0.27 W at wavelengths longer than 2.4 µm was measured. It is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on such an approach to generate a mid-IR SC in optical fibers.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Dupont, C. Petersen, J. Thøgersen, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source,” Opt. Express20(5), 4887–4892 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express14(12), 5715–5722 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progres in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 467–495 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Mazé, and M. Eichhorn, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked Tm3+-doped silicate 2 μm fiber laser for supercontinuum generation in fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 512–514 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Jiang and P. Tayebati, “Stable 10 ns, kilowatt peak-power pulse generation from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1797–1799 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00–908 Warsaw, Poland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-mode-locked, fast gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser.”
  23. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 4th Edition (Academic Press, 2007).

2013

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Dupont, C. Petersen, J. Thøgersen, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source,” Opt. Express20(5), 4887–4892 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Mazé, and M. Eichhorn, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked Tm3+-doped silicate 2 μm fiber laser for supercontinuum generation in fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

1977

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agger, C.

Alexander, V. V.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Dupont, C. Petersen, J. Thøgersen, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source,” Opt. Express20(5), 4887–4892 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buccoliero, D.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Chan, A.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Duan, Z.

Dupont, S.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progres in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eckerle, M.

Eichhorn, M.

Elder, A. D.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frank, J. H.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Hansen, K. P.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hult, J.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Jakobsen, C.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Johansen, J.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ke, K.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Kieleck, C.

Kito, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kudlinski, A.

Kulkarni, O. P.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, M.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, C.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, M.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyngso, J. K.

Maciejewska, M.

J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marandi, A.

Mattsson, K. E.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauricio, J.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazé, G.

Michalska, M.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moller, U.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progres in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moselund, P. M.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neelakandan, M.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohishi, Y.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, C.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Popov, S. V.

Poulain, M.

Pureza, P. C.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudy, C. W.

Rulkov, A. B.

Sanghera, J. S.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Sorensen, S. T.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steffensen, H.

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swiderski, J.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Mazé, and M. Eichhorn, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked Tm3+-doped silicate 2 μm fiber laser for supercontinuum generation in fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, A.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tayebati, P.

Taylor, J. R.

Terry, F. L.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thogersen, J.

Thøgersen, J.

Thomsen, C. L.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Travers, J. C.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Watt, R. S.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, C.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zakel, A.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progres in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys. Lett.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00–908 Warsaw, Poland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-mode-locked, fast gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser.”

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 4th Edition (Academic Press, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of fiber mid-IR SC source. ISO - optical isolator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An example of oscilloscope picture of recorded gain-switched mode-locked output laser pulse. Trace 1 (upper) - pump 1.55 µm pulse, trace 2 (lower) - output 2 µm laser pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average output power at 2 µm wavelength for 26 kHz (a) and 40 kHz (b) vs launched TDFA pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse energy and peak power for selected self-mode-locked sub-pulses in a gain-switched pulse envelope (inset).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average SC output power for 26 kHz (a) and 40 kHz (b) vs launched pump power. Values of slope efficiencies η presented in brackets indicate the slope efficiency with respect to TDFA pump power at 790 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SC spectrum after propagation through the ZBLAN fiber for the maximum output power and the PRF of 26 kHz. Inset: attenuation of the ZBLAN fiber.

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