Abstract

We demonstrate a novel method of mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) generation with the use of a 2 µm gain-switched self-mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser. SC radiation ranging from ~1.9 to 3.8 µm wavelength, generated in a single-mode ZBLAN fiber with a zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) shifted to ~1.9 µm, is reported. An average output power of 0.74 W with 0.27 W at wavelengths longer than 2.4 µm was measured. It is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on such an approach to generate a mid-IR SC in optical fibers.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Dupont, C. Petersen, J. Thøgersen, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source,” Opt. Express20(5), 4887–4892 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express14(12), 5715–5722 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progres in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 467–495 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Mazé, and M. Eichhorn, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked Tm3+-doped silicate 2 μm fiber laser for supercontinuum generation in fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 512–514 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Jiang and P. Tayebati, “Stable 10 ns, kilowatt peak-power pulse generation from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(13), 1797–1799 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00–908 Warsaw, Poland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-mode-locked, fast gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser.”
  23. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 4th Edition (Academic Press, 2007).

2013 (2)

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (9)

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Dupont, C. Petersen, J. Thøgersen, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source,” Opt. Express20(5), 4887–4892 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Mazé, and M. Eichhorn, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked Tm3+-doped silicate 2 μm fiber laser for supercontinuum generation in fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

1977 (1)

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agger, C.

Alexander, V. V.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Dupont, C. Petersen, J. Thøgersen, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source,” Opt. Express20(5), 4887–4892 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buccoliero, D.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Chan, A.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Duan, Z.

Dupont, S.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progres in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eckerle, M.

Eichhorn, M.

Elder, A. D.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frank, J. H.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Hansen, K. P.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hult, J.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Jakobsen, C.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Johansen, J.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ke, K.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Kieleck, C.

Kito, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kudlinski, A.

Kulkarni, O. P.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, M.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, C.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, M.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyngso, J. K.

Maciejewska, M.

J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marandi, A.

Mattsson, K. E.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauricio, J.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazé, G.

Michalska, M.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moller, U.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progres in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moselund, P. M.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neelakandan, M.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express19(16), 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohishi, Y.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, C.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Popov, S. V.

Poulain, M.

Pureza, P. C.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudy, C. W.

Rulkov, A. B.

Sanghera, J. S.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Sorensen, S. T.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steffensen, H.

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swiderski, J.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Mazé, and M. Eichhorn, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked Tm3+-doped silicate 2 μm fiber laser for supercontinuum generation in fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, A.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tayebati, P.

Taylor, J. R.

Terry, F. L.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thogersen, J.

Thøgersen, J.

Thomsen, C. L.

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngso, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Travers, J. C.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Watt, R. S.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, C.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation in short tellurite microstructured fibers pumped by a quasi-cw laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2127–2129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zakel, A.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progres in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for applications in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiderski and M. Maciejewska, “Watt-level, all-fiber supercontinuum source based on telecom-grade fiber components,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 177–181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(1), 33–35 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Thulium pumped high power supercontinuum in loss-determined optimum lengths of tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 061106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power mid-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun.290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (3)

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Moller, S. T. Sorensen, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 304–314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00–908 Warsaw, Poland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Self-mode-locked, fast gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser.”

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 4th Edition (Academic Press, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of fiber mid-IR SC source. ISO - optical isolator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An example of oscilloscope picture of recorded gain-switched mode-locked output laser pulse. Trace 1 (upper) - pump 1.55 µm pulse, trace 2 (lower) - output 2 µm laser pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average output power at 2 µm wavelength for 26 kHz (a) and 40 kHz (b) vs launched TDFA pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse energy and peak power for selected self-mode-locked sub-pulses in a gain-switched pulse envelope (inset).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average SC output power for 26 kHz (a) and 40 kHz (b) vs launched pump power. Values of slope efficiencies η presented in brackets indicate the slope efficiency with respect to TDFA pump power at 790 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SC spectrum after propagation through the ZBLAN fiber for the maximum output power and the PRF of 26 kHz. Inset: attenuation of the ZBLAN fiber.

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