Abstract

In this paper, the spontaneous Raman spectra and second harmonic generation (SHG) properties at 589 nm of a novel Raman crystal BaTeMo2O9 (BTM) were investigated. The BTM crystal was cut along the type-II SHG phase-matching direction for the first-order Raman shift at 1178 nm to realize the SRS and SHG simultaneously. Pumped by a nanosecond 1064 nm laser source, a self-frequency-doubled BTM Raman laser operating at 589 nm has been demonstrated for the first time. At the pump pulse energy of 48 mJ, the maximum yellow laser output pulse energy of 5.6 mJ was obtained with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 11.7%. Our results show that BTM crystal is one of the promising candidate Raman materials to generate yellow laser radiation.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (2)

Q. Yu, Z. Gao, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Wang, and X. Tao, “Second order nonlinear properties of monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, S. D. Liu, S. J. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, J. L. He, and X. T. Tao, “High efficient external resonator Raman laser based on the monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. H. Xue, Q. H. Ren, and A. K. Wang, “Calculation of Type II phase-matching walk-off angle and interaction length of LBO crystals,” J. Synth. Cryst.38(6), 1463–1471 (2009).

Z. L. Gao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, W. S. Wang, M. H. Jiang, and X. T. Tao, “Electro-optic properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(15), 151107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Basiev, M. Doroshenko, L. Ivleva, I. Voronina, V. Konjushkin, V. Osiko, and S. Vasilyev, “Demonstration of high self-Raman laser performance of a diode-pumped SrMoO4:Nd3+ crystal,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 1102–1104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. Chang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, Y. Sun, S. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Self-frequency-doubled KTiOAsO4 Raman laser emitting at 573 nm,” Opt. Lett.34(14), 2183–2185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, and J. A. Piper, “High efficiency, multi-Watt CW yellow emission from an intracavity-doubled self-Raman laser using Nd:GdVO4,” Opt. Express16(26), 21958–21963 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 252906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

X. Yin, S. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Tian, “Refractive indices of biaxial crystals evaluated from the refractive indices ellipsoid equation,” Opt. Laser Technol.39(3), 510–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Cong, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Diode-side-pumped intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG/BaWO4 Raman laser generating average output power of 3.14 W at 590 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(20), 2951–2953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

H. S. Ra, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Combining second-order Jahn-Teller distorted cations to create highly efficient SHG Materials: synthesis, characterization, and NLO properties of BaTeM2O9 (M = Mo6+ or W6+),” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(26), 7764–7765 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, P. Peuser, A. A. Kaminskii, and J. Hulliger, “Diode-pumped Ba(NO3)2 and NaBrO3 Raman lasers,” Appl. Phys. B70(2), 159–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Basiev, T.

Chang, J.

Chen, Y. F.

Cheng, X.

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cong, Z.

Dekker, P.

Doroshenko, M.

Eichler, H. J.

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, P. Peuser, A. A. Kaminskii, and J. Hulliger, “Diode-pumped Ba(NO3)2 and NaBrO3 Raman lasers,” Appl. Phys. B70(2), 159–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Findeisen, J.

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, P. Peuser, A. A. Kaminskii, and J. Hulliger, “Diode-pumped Ba(NO3)2 and NaBrO3 Raman lasers,” Appl. Phys. B70(2), 159–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z.

Q. Yu, Z. Gao, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Wang, and X. Tao, “Second order nonlinear properties of monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z. L.

Z. L. Gao, S. D. Liu, S. J. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, J. L. He, and X. T. Tao, “High efficient external resonator Raman laser based on the monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, W. S. Wang, M. H. Jiang, and X. T. Tao, “Electro-optic properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(15), 151107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 252906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halasyamani, P. S.

H. S. Ra, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Combining second-order Jahn-Teller distorted cations to create highly efficient SHG Materials: synthesis, characterization, and NLO properties of BaTeM2O9 (M = Mo6+ or W6+),” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(26), 7764–7765 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J. L.

Z. L. Gao, S. D. Liu, S. J. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, J. L. He, and X. T. Tao, “High efficient external resonator Raman laser based on the monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, P. Peuser, A. A. Kaminskii, and J. Hulliger, “Diode-pumped Ba(NO3)2 and NaBrO3 Raman lasers,” Appl. Phys. B70(2), 159–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ivleva, L.

Jiang, M.

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

Z. L. Gao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, W. S. Wang, M. H. Jiang, and X. T. Tao, “Electro-optic properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(15), 151107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 252906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and M. H. Jiang, “Efficient diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/BaWO4 intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Lett.30(24), 3335–3337 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, G.

Kaminskii, A. A.

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, P. Peuser, A. A. Kaminskii, and J. Hulliger, “Diode-pumped Ba(NO3)2 and NaBrO3 Raman lasers,” Appl. Phys. B70(2), 159–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Konjushkin, V.

Lee, A. J.

Li, S.

Liu, S. D.

Z. L. Gao, S. D. Liu, S. J. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, J. L. He, and X. T. Tao, “High efficient external resonator Raman laser based on the monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Mildren, R. P.

Ogilvy, H.

Ok, K. M.

H. S. Ra, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Combining second-order Jahn-Teller distorted cations to create highly efficient SHG Materials: synthesis, characterization, and NLO properties of BaTeM2O9 (M = Mo6+ or W6+),” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(26), 7764–7765 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osiko, V.

Pask, H. M.

Peuser, P.

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, P. Peuser, A. A. Kaminskii, and J. Hulliger, “Diode-pumped Ba(NO3)2 and NaBrO3 Raman lasers,” Appl. Phys. B70(2), 159–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

Ra, H. S.

H. S. Ra, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Combining second-order Jahn-Teller distorted cations to create highly efficient SHG Materials: synthesis, characterization, and NLO properties of BaTeM2O9 (M = Mo6+ or W6+),” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(26), 7764–7765 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Q. H.

J. H. Xue, Q. H. Ren, and A. K. Wang, “Calculation of Type II phase-matching walk-off angle and interaction length of LBO crystals,” J. Synth. Cryst.38(6), 1463–1471 (2009).

Su, K. W.

Sun, W.

Sun, Y.

Tao, X.

Q. Yu, Z. Gao, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Wang, and X. Tao, “Second order nonlinear properties of monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. Chang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, Y. Sun, S. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Self-frequency-doubled KTiOAsO4 Raman laser emitting at 573 nm,” Opt. Lett.34(14), 2183–2185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. T.

Z. L. Gao, S. D. Liu, S. J. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, J. L. He, and X. T. Tao, “High efficient external resonator Raman laser based on the monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, W. S. Wang, M. H. Jiang, and X. T. Tao, “Electro-optic properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(15), 151107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 252906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z. B.

X. Yin, S. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Tian, “Refractive indices of biaxial crystals evaluated from the refractive indices ellipsoid equation,” Opt. Laser Technol.39(3), 510–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, S.

Voronina, I.

Wang, A. K.

J. H. Xue, Q. H. Ren, and A. K. Wang, “Calculation of Type II phase-matching walk-off angle and interaction length of LBO crystals,” J. Synth. Cryst.38(6), 1463–1471 (2009).

Wang, J.

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, Q.

Wang, S.

Q. Yu, Z. Gao, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Wang, and X. Tao, “Second order nonlinear properties of monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. S.

Z. L. Gao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, W. S. Wang, M. H. Jiang, and X. T. Tao, “Electro-optic properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(15), 151107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J. H.

J. H. Xue, Q. H. Ren, and A. K. Wang, “Calculation of Type II phase-matching walk-off angle and interaction length of LBO crystals,” J. Synth. Cryst.38(6), 1463–1471 (2009).

Yin, X.

Z. L. Gao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, W. S. Wang, M. H. Jiang, and X. T. Tao, “Electro-optic properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(15), 151107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 252906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Yin, S. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Tian, “Refractive indices of biaxial crystals evaluated from the refractive indices ellipsoid equation,” Opt. Laser Technol.39(3), 510–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Yu, Z. Gao, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Wang, and X. Tao, “Second order nonlinear properties of monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, S. J.

Z. L. Gao, S. D. Liu, S. J. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, J. L. He, and X. T. Tao, “High efficient external resonator Raman laser based on the monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yin, S. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Tian, “Refractive indices of biaxial crystals evaluated from the refractive indices ellipsoid equation,” Opt. Laser Technol.39(3), 510–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Q. Yu, Z. Gao, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Wang, and X. Tao, “Second order nonlinear properties of monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. G.

Z. L. Gao, S. D. Liu, S. J. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, J. L. He, and X. T. Tao, “High efficient external resonator Raman laser based on the monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, W. S. Wang, M. H. Jiang, and X. T. Tao, “Electro-optic properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(15), 151107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 252906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, P. Peuser, A. A. Kaminskii, and J. Hulliger, “Diode-pumped Ba(NO3)2 and NaBrO3 Raman lasers,” Appl. Phys. B70(2), 159–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Z. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 252906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, X. Yin, W. G. Zhang, W. S. Wang, M. H. Jiang, and X. T. Tao, “Electro-optic properties of BaTeMo2O9 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(15), 151107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Gao, S. D. Liu, S. J. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, J. L. He, and X. T. Tao, “High efficient external resonator Raman laser based on the monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

W. Zhang, X. Tao, C. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Cheng, X. Liu, and M. Jiang, “Bulk growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical crystal BaTeMo2O9,” Cryst. Growth Des.8(1), 304–307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. S. Ra, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Combining second-order Jahn-Teller distorted cations to create highly efficient SHG Materials: synthesis, characterization, and NLO properties of BaTeM2O9 (M = Mo6+ or W6+),” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(26), 7764–7765 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Yu, Z. Gao, S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Wang, and X. Tao, “Second order nonlinear properties of monoclinic single crystal BaTeMo2O9,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Synth. Cryst. (1)

J. H. Xue, Q. H. Ren, and A. K. Wang, “Calculation of Type II phase-matching walk-off angle and interaction length of LBO crystals,” J. Synth. Cryst.38(6), 1463–1471 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

X. Yin, S. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Tian, “Refractive indices of biaxial crystals evaluated from the refractive indices ellipsoid equation,” Opt. Laser Technol.39(3), 510–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Y. F. Chen, K. W. Su, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and M. H. Jiang, “Efficient diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/BaWO4 intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Lett.30(24), 3335–3337 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Basiev, M. Doroshenko, L. Ivleva, I. Voronina, V. Konjushkin, V. Osiko, and S. Vasilyev, “Demonstration of high self-Raman laser performance of a diode-pumped SrMoO4:Nd3+ crystal,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 1102–1104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Pask and J. A. Piper, “Efficient all-solid-state yellow laser source producing 1.2-W average power,” Opt. Lett.24(21), 1490–1492 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Mildren, H. M. Pask, H. Ogilvy, and J. A. Piper, “Discretely tunable, all-solid-state laser in the green, yellow, and red,” Opt. Lett.30(12), 1500–1502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Cong, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Diode-side-pumped intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG/BaWO4 Raman laser generating average output power of 3.14 W at 590 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(20), 2951–2953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. Chang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, Y. Sun, S. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Self-frequency-doubled KTiOAsO4 Raman laser emitting at 573 nm,” Opt. Lett.34(14), 2183–2185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, “Stimulated Raman scattering in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal: simultaneous self-sum frequency mixing and self-frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett.30(4), 400–402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Type-II phase matching curves of BTM in XY-plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The spontaneous Raman spectra of BTM oriented (θ, φ) = (90°, 52.7°). a) Spectrum for Stokes and pump light polarization parallel to Z axis, b) Spectrum for Stokes and pump light polarization perpendicular to Z-axis in the incidence cross section.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the self-frequency-doubled BTM Raman laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The 589 nm pulse energy versus the 1064 nm pump pulse energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The output pulse (589 nm) spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical oscilloscope trace for the 589 nm laser pulse.

Equations (3)

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Type II: d eff II = a i e2 d ijk a j e1 a k e2 where a i e2 =( cosθcosφsinδsinφcosδ cosθsinφsinδ+cosφcosδ sinθsinδ ), a k e1 =( cosθcosφcosδsinφsinδ cosθsinφcosδ+cosφsinδ sinθcosδ ), cot2δ= cot 2 Ω cos 2 θ cos 2 θ cos 2 φ+ sin 2 φ cosθsin2φ , tgΩ= n 3 n 1 ( n 2 2 n 1 2 n 3 2 n 1 2 ) 1 2 ,
Δk= [ Δk ] θ= θ 0 + [ (Δk) θ ] θ= θ 0 Δθ+ 1 2 [ 2 (Δk) θ 2 ] θ= θ 0 ( Δθ ) 2 + 1 6 [ 3 (Δk) θ 3 ] θ= θ 0 ( Δθ ) 3 +
| 1 2 d 2 d θ 2 Δk(θ,φ)Δ θ 2 | π l

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