Abstract

The systematic error for photomechanic methods caused by self-heating induced image expansion when using a digital camera was systematically studied, and a new physical model to explain the mechanism has been proposed and verified. The experimental results showed that the thermal expansion of the camera outer case and lens mount, instead of mechanical components within the camera, were the main reason for image expansion. The corresponding systematic error for both image analysis and fringe analysis based photomechanic methods were analyzed and measured, then error compensation techniques were proposed and verified.

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References

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  1. W. N. Sharpe, Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics (Springer, 2007).
  2. H. W. Schreier, M. A. Sutton, and J. Orteu, Image correlation for shape, motion and deformation measurements: basic concepts, theory and applications (Springer, 2009).
  3. B. Pan, K. M. Qian, H. M. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(6), 062001–062017 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Wang, Q. W. Ma, S. P. Ma, and H. T. Wang, “A marker locating method based on gray centroid algorithm and its application to displacement and strain measurement,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2011), pp. 932–937.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. N. Petzing and J. R. Tyrer, “Recent developments and applications in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.33(2), 153–169 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju, High Sensitivity Moiré: Experimental Analysis for Mechanics and Materials (Springer, 1994).
  8. K. Ramesh, T. Kasimayan, and B. N. Simon, “Digital photoelasticity - A comprehensive review,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.46(4), 245–266 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. W. Wong, M. Lew, and Y. Ke, “Experience with two vision systems,” Proc. SPIE1395, 3–7 (1990).
  10. H. A. Beyer, Analysis of a CCD-camera based Photogrammetric Close-range System, Ph.D. Thesis, ETH-Zurich, 1992.
  11. H. Handel, “Analyzing the influences of camera warm-up effects on image acquisition,” IPSJ Trans. Comput. Vis. Appl.1, 12–20 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. P. Ma, J. Z. Pang, and Q. W. Ma, “The systematic error in digital image correlation induced by self-heating of a digital camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025403 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, 2002).
  14. K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).
  15. H. A. Bruck, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Digital image correlation using newton-raphson method of partial differential correction,” Exp. Mech.29(3), 261–267 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(2), 304–317 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. P. Ma, J. Z. Pang, and Q. W. Ma, “The systematic error in digital image correlation induced by self-heating of a digital camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

K. Ramesh, T. Kasimayan, and B. N. Simon, “Digital photoelasticity - A comprehensive review,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.46(4), 245–266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

B. Pan, K. M. Qian, H. M. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(6), 062001–062017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Handel, “Analyzing the influences of camera warm-up effects on image acquisition,” IPSJ Trans. Comput. Vis. Appl.1, 12–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(2), 304–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. N. Petzing and J. R. Tyrer, “Recent developments and applications in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.33(2), 153–169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).

1990 (1)

K. W. Wong, M. Lew, and Y. Ke, “Experience with two vision systems,” Proc. SPIE1395, 3–7 (1990).

1989 (1)

H. A. Bruck, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Digital image correlation using newton-raphson method of partial differential correction,” Exp. Mech.29(3), 261–267 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Asundi, A.

B. Pan, K. M. Qian, H. M. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(6), 062001–062017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruck, H. A.

H. A. Bruck, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Digital image correlation using newton-raphson method of partial differential correction,” Exp. Mech.29(3), 261–267 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, F. P.

Fuzise, K.

K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).

Halioua, M.

Handel, H.

H. Handel, “Analyzing the influences of camera warm-up effects on image acquisition,” IPSJ Trans. Comput. Vis. Appl.1, 12–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasimayan, T.

K. Ramesh, T. Kasimayan, and B. N. Simon, “Digital photoelasticity - A comprehensive review,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.46(4), 245–266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ke, Y.

K. W. Wong, M. Lew, and Y. Ke, “Experience with two vision systems,” Proc. SPIE1395, 3–7 (1990).

Kemao, Q.

Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(2), 304–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, R. S.

Lew, M.

K. W. Wong, M. Lew, and Y. Ke, “Experience with two vision systems,” Proc. SPIE1395, 3–7 (1990).

Liu, H.

Ma, Q. W.

S. P. Ma, J. Z. Pang, and Q. W. Ma, “The systematic error in digital image correlation induced by self-heating of a digital camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. P.

S. P. Ma, J. Z. Pang, and Q. W. Ma, “The systematic error in digital image correlation induced by self-heating of a digital camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McNeill, S. R.

H. A. Bruck, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Digital image correlation using newton-raphson method of partial differential correction,” Exp. Mech.29(3), 261–267 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, H.

K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).

Nishimura, K.

K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).

Okada, S.

K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).

Otani, T.

K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).

Pan, B.

B. Pan, K. M. Qian, H. M. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(6), 062001–062017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pang, J. Z.

S. P. Ma, J. Z. Pang, and Q. W. Ma, “The systematic error in digital image correlation induced by self-heating of a digital camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peters, W. H.

H. A. Bruck, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Digital image correlation using newton-raphson method of partial differential correction,” Exp. Mech.29(3), 261–267 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petzing, J. N.

J. N. Petzing and J. R. Tyrer, “Recent developments and applications in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.33(2), 153–169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qian, K. M.

B. Pan, K. M. Qian, H. M. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(6), 062001–062017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramesh, K.

K. Ramesh, T. Kasimayan, and B. N. Simon, “Digital photoelasticity - A comprehensive review,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.46(4), 245–266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simon, B. N.

K. Ramesh, T. Kasimayan, and B. N. Simon, “Digital photoelasticity - A comprehensive review,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.46(4), 245–266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, M. A.

H. A. Bruck, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Digital image correlation using newton-raphson method of partial differential correction,” Exp. Mech.29(3), 261–267 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tyrer, J. R.

J. N. Petzing and J. R. Tyrer, “Recent developments and applications in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.33(2), 153–169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. W.

K. W. Wong, M. Lew, and Y. Ke, “Experience with two vision systems,” Proc. SPIE1395, 3–7 (1990).

Xie, H. M.

B. Pan, K. M. Qian, H. M. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(6), 062001–062017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Mech. (1)

H. A. Bruck, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, and W. H. Peters, “Digital image correlation using newton-raphson method of partial differential correction,” Exp. Mech.29(3), 261–267 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IPSJ Trans. Comput. Vis. Appl. (1)

H. Handel, “Analyzing the influences of camera warm-up effects on image acquisition,” IPSJ Trans. Comput. Vis. Appl.1, 12–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des. (2)

J. N. Petzing and J. R. Tyrer, “Recent developments and applications in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.33(2), 153–169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Ramesh, T. Kasimayan, and B. N. Simon, “Digital photoelasticity - A comprehensive review,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.46(4), 245–266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

B. Pan, K. M. Qian, H. M. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(6), 062001–062017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Ma, J. Z. Pang, and Q. W. Ma, “The systematic error in digital image correlation induced by self-heating of a digital camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Lasers Eng.45(2), 304–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. W. Wong, M. Lew, and Y. Ke, “Experience with two vision systems,” Proc. SPIE1395, 3–7 (1990).

Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng. (1)

K. Nishimura, H. Miyauchi, K. Fuzise, T. Otani, S. Okada, and H. Yokogawa, “Measurement of polished curved surfaces with tele-microscope,” Trans. Soc. Instrum. Control Eng.30(10), 1260–1262 (1994).

Other (6)

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

H. A. Beyer, Analysis of a CCD-camera based Photogrammetric Close-range System, Ph.D. Thesis, ETH-Zurich, 1992.

D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju, High Sensitivity Moiré: Experimental Analysis for Mechanics and Materials (Springer, 1994).

X. Wang, Q. W. Ma, S. P. Ma, and H. T. Wang, “A marker locating method based on gray centroid algorithm and its application to displacement and strain measurement,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2011), pp. 932–937.

W. N. Sharpe, Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics (Springer, 2007).

H. W. Schreier, M. A. Sutton, and J. Orteu, Image correlation for shape, motion and deformation measurements: basic concepts, theory and applications (Springer, 2009).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The measured temperature variation of the camera case, mount and lens during prolonged image capturing showing (a) the temperature monitored by the thermal sensors and (b) the temperature monitored by the infrared camera. The experiment was performed at room temperature (20þC), with the temperature plotted on the Fig. being the net increase of temperature over room temperature. All of the following Figs. follow the same convention.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Analysis of the motion of the different parts of a digital camera during self-heating showing (a) the structure of the digital camera (Imperx-16M3-L CCD camera) and (b) the observed motions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The experimental arrangement used to measure the motion of the different parts of the camera showing (a) the schematic and (b) the experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The motion of the different parts of camera during self-heating showing (a) the motion of the different parts and (b) the linear relationship between the motion of imaging sensor, lens and temperature. The experiment was performed at room temperature of 18þC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A physical model to describe temperature induced image expansion showing (a) the definition of each variable and (b) the model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experiment to verify the physical model of temperature induced image expansion showing (a) the schematic of the experimental setup, (b) a photo of the experimental setup and (c) comparison between the measured and theoretical estimated relative image expansion for three different imaging arrangements: u = 460 mm, v = 136 mm for the left, u = 640 mm, v = 126 mm for the middle and u = 4000 mm, v = 325 mm for the right.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The phase error induced by image expansion showing (a) the original fringe image, (b) the expanded fringe image and (c) the corresponding phase value.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental arrangement for the measurement of the camera self-heating induced strain error in DIC showing (a) the imaging target, (b) the captured speckle image and (c) the DIC analysis scheme.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The camera self-heating induced strain error in the DIC method showing (a) the strain and temperature variation with the time, and (b) the linear relationship between strain and temperature.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The structure and geometry of different types of digital cameras used in the experiments of paper; (a) Imperx-16M3-L, (b) BaslerA641f and (c) DH-1310FM.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The experiment used to measure the camera self-heating induced phase error in Michelson interference method and the image data obtained by digital camera showing (a) photos of experiment arrangement, (b) the image obtained by the camera, (c) the region used for phase analysis, (d) the wrapped phase result, and (e) the unwrapped phase result.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The camera self-heating induced phase measurement error for Michelson interferometry showing (a) the relative phase error and temperature variation with time, and (b) relative phase error variation with temperature.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The experimental arrangement used to compensate the strain measurement error induced by self-heating showing (a) the schematic of the system and (b) photos of the experiment.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Results for the compensation experiment showing (a) a comparison of strain of two specimens from strain gauge results, DIC results against strain results corrected by CSM and TRM and (b) a comparison of stress-strain curves for the original DIC result and DIC results corrected by CSM and TRM.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the measured and theoretically estimated image expansion rate for different imaging arrangements

Tables Icon

Table 2 The camera parameters of three different cameras used in this paper

Tables Icon

Table 3 The elastic modulus evaluated from the un-corrected and corrected DIC results

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k CCD = δ CCD T ,
k lens = δ lens T .
h '' h ' = u(v+ δ lens δ CCD ) v(u δ lens ) ,
α e = h '' - h ' h ' = u( δ lens δ CCD )+v δ lens v(u δ lens ) .
α e = δ lens u + δ lens δ CCD v .
α e =( k lens u + k lens k CCD v )T= r e T,
r e = k lens u + k lens k CCD v ,
r e = k lens k CCD v .
k lens = u 1 u 2 ( v 1 r e1 v 2 r e2 ) u 2 v 1 v 2 u 1 , k CCD = u 1 v 1 ( u 2 + v 2 ) r e1 u 2 v 2 ( u 1 + v 1 ) r e2 u 2 v 1 u 1 v 2 .
k lens = u 1 r e1 u 1 v v 1 r e2 , k CCD = u 1 r e1 v ( u 1 v 1 ) v 1 r e2 ,
ε err = α e .
φ err = 1 α e +1 φφ φ = α e α e +1 α e ,

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